Long-Term Care: Is There Still A Role for Nursing?

  • Sally J. Redfern


The proposition of this book that a systemic understanding of care in communities requires a broader interpretation of ‘institutions’ is further developed in this chapter. So far, a variety of forms of institutional care have been discussed. In these chapters, the interdependence of formal and informal care, and of residential and community-based services, has been emphasised. The state, the family and numerous forms of residential and community care have all been identified as ‘institutions’ with a far greater degree of permeability than the conventional notion of the ‘total institution’ suggests. The nature and influence of professions as institutions has been touched upon in earlier chapters, and Professor Redfern’s account of the changing nature and role of professional nursing focuses this aspect of the discussion. In doing so, this chapter offers further ways of addressing the urgent concerns of the previous two chapters about the effects of the rush to ‘community care’ on the quality of continuing care for the most vulnerable, sick and disabled people in our society.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahmed, L.B. and Kitson, A. (1993) Complementary roles of nurse and healthcare assistant. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2:287–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldridge, M. (1994) Unlimited liability? Emotional labour in nursing and social work. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20:722–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armitage, P., Champney-Smith, J. and Andrews, K. (1991) Primary nursing and the role of the nurse preceptor in changing long-term mental health care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 16:413–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baillie, L. (1995) Empathy in the nurse—patient relationship. Nursing Standard, 9(20):29–32.Google Scholar
  5. Benner, P. (1984) From Novice to Expert. Menlo Park, CA, Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  6. Benner, P. and Wrubel, J. (1986) The Primacy of Caring. Menlo Park CA, Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  7. Bond, S. (1994) What Are Outcomes of Nursing Care? Paper presented at the Passport to Quality Conference, London, 22–24 June.Google Scholar
  8. Bond, S., Fall, M., Thomas, L. and Bond, J. (1990) Primary Nursing and Primary Medical Care: A Comparative Study in Community Hospitals. Report 39. Newcastle Upon Tyne, Univeristy of Newcastle, Health Care Research Unit.Google Scholar
  9. Bradshaw, A. (1995) What are nurses doing to patients? A review of nursing theories past and present. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 4:81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brindle, D. (1993) Measuring the quality of care. Guardian, 16 June:15.Google Scholar
  11. Caines, E. (1993) Amputation is crucial to the patient’s health. Guardian, 11 May:20.Google Scholar
  12. Carper, B. (1978) Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Advances in Nursing Sciences, 1(1):13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carr-Hill, R., Dixon, P., Griffiths, M. et al. (1992) Skill Mix and the Effectiveness of Nursing Care. York, University of York, Centre for Health Economics.Google Scholar
  14. Cassidy, J. (1995) Nursing Times, 22 February: 7.Google Scholar
  15. Department of Health (1989) A Strategy for Nursing. London, Department of Health Nursing Division.Google Scholar
  16. Department of Health (1991) The Patient’s Charter. London, HMSO.Google Scholar
  17. Department of Health (1993) A Vision for the Future. London, NHSME.Google Scholar
  18. Department of Health (1995) NHS Responsibilities for Meeting Continuing Health Care Needs, HSG (95) 8, LAC (95) 5. London, Department of Health.Google Scholar
  19. Dewar, B-J. (1992) Skill muddle? Nursing Times, 88(33):24–7.Google Scholar
  20. Dewar, B-J. and Macleod Clark, J. (1992) The role of the paid non-professional nursing helper: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17:113–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Downie, R.S. and Telfer, E. (1980) Caring and Curing: A Philosophy of Medicine and Social Work. London, Methuen.Google Scholar
  22. English, I. (1993) Intuition as a function of the expert nurse: a critique of Benner’s novice to expert model. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 18:387–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ersser, S. and Tutton, E. (eds) (1991) Primary Nursing in Perspective. Harrow, Scutari Press.Google Scholar
  24. Fealy, G. (1995) Professional caring: the moral dimension. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22:1135–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gaut, D.A. (1983) Development of a theoretically adequate description of caring. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 5(4):313–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Habermas, J. (1972) Knowledge and Human Interest. London, Heinemann.Google Scholar
  27. Hancock, C. (1992) Nurses and Skill Mix: What are The Issues? London, Royal College of Nursing.Google Scholar
  28. Henderson, V. (1966) The Nature of Nursing. London, Collier Macmillan.Google Scholar
  29. Hollingberry, R. (1993) Gerocomist: A New Trans-disciplinary Profession. Paper presented to the British Society of Gerontology Conference, Norwich, September.Google Scholar
  30. Jasper, M.A. (1994) Expert: a discussion of the implications of the concept as used in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20:769–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johns, C. (1994) Can human caring in practice be an everyday reality for nurses?Journal of Nursing Management, 2:157–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. King, I. (1981) A Theory of Nursing. New York, John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  33. Kitson, A. (1991) Therapeutic Nursing and the Hospitalized Elderly. London, Scutari Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kyle, T.V. (1995) The concept of caring: a review of the literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 21: 506–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leininger, M.M. (1981) The phenomenon of caring: importance, research questions and theoretical considerations, in Leininger, M.M. (ed.) Caring: An Essential Human Need. Thorofare, New Jersey, Slack, pp. 3–16.Google Scholar
  36. Luker, K. (1995) Research and the configuration of nursing studies. Winifred Raphael Memorial Lecture, November, London, Royal College of Nursing.Google Scholar
  37. MacGuire, J., Adair, E. and Botting, D. (1994) Primary Nursing in Elderly Care. London, King’s Fund Centre.Google Scholar
  38. Morrison, P. and Burnard, P. (1991) Caring and Communication: The Interpersonal Relationship in Nursing. London, Macmillan.Google Scholar
  39. Morse, J.M., Bottorff, J., Neander, W. and Solberg, S. (1991) Comparative analysis of conceptualisations and theories of caring. IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 23(2):119–27.Google Scholar
  40. Nolan, M. (1994) Geriatric nursing: an idea whose time has gone? A polemic. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20:989–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Orem, D. (1971) Nursing: Concepts of Practice. New York, McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  42. Parker, R. (1981) Tending and social policy, in Goldberg, E.M. and Hatch, S. (eds) A New Look at the Personal Social Services. Discussion paper number 4. London, Policy Studies Institute, pp. 17–32.Google Scholar
  43. Paterson, J. and Zderad, L. (1976) Humanistic Nursing. New York, John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  44. Payne, D. (1995) Nursing Times, 1 March: 20.Google Scholar
  45. Pearson, A. (1988) Trends in clinical nursing, in Pearson, A. (ed.) Primary Nursing: Nursing in the Burford and Oxford Nursing Development Units. London, Croom Helm, pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  46. Pembrey, S. (1984) Nursing care: professional progress. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 9:539–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Phillips, P. (1993) A deconstuction of caring. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 18:1554–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Polanyi, M. (1967) The Tacit Dimension. New York, Doubleday Anchor.Google Scholar
  49. Reihl-Sisca, J. (1989) The Reihl interaction model: an update, in Reihl-Sisca, J. (ed.) Conceptual Models for Nursing Practice, 3rd edn. Norwalk,CT, Appleton &Lange, pp. 383–403.Google Scholar
  50. Rew, L. and Barrow, E.M. (1987) Intuition: a neglected hallmark of nursing knowledge. Advances in Nursing Sciences, 10(1):49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Robinson, J. (1990) The role of the support worker in the health care team. Nursing Times, 86(37):61–3.Google Scholar
  52. Rose, P. and Parker, D. (1994) Nursing: an integration of art and science within the experience of the practitioner. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20:1004–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Roy, C. (1976) Introduction to Nursing: Adaptation Nursing. New Jersey, Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  54. Salvage, J. (1990) The theory and practice of the ‘new’ nursing. Nursing Times, 86(4):42–5.Google Scholar
  55. Salvage, J. and Wright, S. (1995) Nursing Development Units: A Force for Change. Harrow, Scutari Press.Google Scholar
  56. Schön, D.A. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner. London, Maurice Temple Smith.Google Scholar
  57. Thomas, L.H. and Bond. S. (1991) Outcomes of nursing care: the case of primary nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 28(4):291–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tierney, A.J. (1992) Outcomes that reflect nursing input, in Bond, S. (ed.) Outcomes of Nursing: Proceedings of an Invitational Developmental Workshop. Newcastle upon Tyne, University of Newcastle, Centre for Health Services Research, pp. 28–32.Google Scholar
  59. Tinker, A., McCreadie, C., Wright, F. and Salvage, A. (1994) The Care of Frail Elderly People in the United Kingdom. London, HMSO.Google Scholar
  60. Vaughan, B. (1992) Exploring the knowledge of nursing practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 1:161–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vaughan, B. (1995) Celebrating 25 years of primary nursing. Journal of Clinical Nursing Editorial, 4:69–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Verran, J.A. and Mark, B. (1992) Contextual factors influencing patient outcomes, individual/group/environment interactions and clinical practice interface, in Patient Outcomes Research: Examining the Effectiveness of Nursing Practice, Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the National Center for Nursing Research, US Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  63. Waterworth, S. (1995) Exploring the value of clinical nursing practice: the practitioner’s perspective. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22:13–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Watson, J. (1985) Nursing: Human Science and Human Care. A Theory of Nursing. Norwalk, CT, Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  65. Watson, R. and Lea, A. (1995) A Postal Survey and Multivariate Analysis of Perceptions of Caring Among Nurses Working in Lothian. Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh, Health Department of Nursing Studies.Google Scholar
  66. Williams, C., Lee, D. and Lowry, M. (1993) Practice development units: the next step. Nursing Standard, 8(11):25–9.Google Scholar
  67. Wright, S. (1991) Of primary importance. Nursing Times, 87(10):38–41.Google Scholar
  68. Wynne, T. (1995) Skill-mix in nursing: efficiency and quality? Journal of Nursing Management, 3:189–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sally J. Redfern 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sally J. Redfern

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations