• Manzoor Alam
  • Markku Kiviniemi


Most governments in western Europe are transforming their societal roles in a substantial way. The prevailing concept of the basic state functions, the relationship between state and society and the overall steering and planning role of the state are changing. The function of public administration is also changing as a result of new political strategies by governments. Perry and Kraemer (1983), representatives of a ‘generic school of management’, introduced the term ‘public management’, which they defined as a new approach that has grown naturally from weaknesses in other prevailing educational philosophies. They describe ‘public management’ as a merger of the normative orientation of traditional public administration and the instrumental orientation of generic management. By ‘normative orientation’ Perry and Kraemer mean a concern with issues of democracy and accountability and values such as equity, consistency and equality. By the ‘instrumental orientation’ of generic management, they evidently mean that the public sector shares with business enterprises the aim of achieving its goals effectively and efficiently by developing coherent strategies, well-defined tactics, appropriate structures, motivated personnel and mastery of relevant managerial techniques for deploying and controlling the use of limited organizational resources (Gunn, 1987).


Public Sector Public Manager Reform Process Public Enterprise Private Manager 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahonen, Pertti (1989) Valtion Liiketoiminta, hallinnon teoriat ja finanssihallinto, Helskinki: Åbo Academy Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alam, Manzoor (1994) Public Sector Performance: Perception versus Reality, Hallinto-extra, Helsinki: Administrative Development Agency.Google Scholar
  3. Dunleavy, P.J. (1985) ‘Bureaucrats, budgets and the growth of the state’, British Journal of Political Science, 15.Google Scholar
  4. Dunsire, A. and Hood, C. (1989) Cutback Management in Public Bureaucracies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Helander, V. (1983) ‘Changing patterns of political culture and changing patterns of interest articulation: Finland in the sixties and seventies’ in Voitto Halender and Dag Anckar (eds) Consultation and Political Culture: Essays on the Case of Finland, Societas Scientiarum Fennica, Commentationes Scientiarum Socialium, 19, pp. 159–162.Google Scholar
  6. Hood, C. (1991) ‘A public management for all seasons?’, Public Administration, 69.Google Scholar
  7. Jorgensen, Torben Beck (1987) ‘Financial management in the public sector’, in J. Kooiman and K. Eliassen (eds) Managing Public Organizations: Lessons from Contemporary European Experience, London: Sage.Google Scholar
  8. Kiviniemi, M (1994) Perspectives on Structure, Culture and Action: Studies in the Public Administration of the Welfare State, Helsinki: Administrative Development Agency.Google Scholar
  9. Gunn, L. (1987) ‘Perspectives on public management’, in J. Kooiman and K. Eliassen (eds) Managing Public Organization, London: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Ministry of Finance (1991) Kiertoon, Henkilökierto-opas, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  11. Ministry of Finance (1992) Public Sector Management Reform: Government Decision on Public Sector Management Reform, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  12. Ministry of Finance (1994) The Budget Proposal of 1995, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  13. Perry, J.L. and Kraemer, K.L. (eds) (1983) Public Management: Public and Private Perspectives, Cal: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  14. Rosas, A. and Suksi, M. (1988) ‘PGOs in Finland’ in C. Hood and G. Schuppert (eds) Delivering Public Services in Western Europe, London: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Ståhlberg, Krister (1986) ‘The politicization of recruitment to central public administration in Finland’, Särtryck ur Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, 3: 159–67.Google Scholar
  16. Ståhlberg, Krister (1989) The Pursuit of an Administrative Policy: A Survey of Finnish Governmental Commissions on Administration, 1975–87, Helsinki: Åbo Academy, 2.Google Scholar
  17. Volanen, Risto (1983) ‘Report on recruitment for the highest offices in Finland’ in Tore Modeen Recruiting for High Offices in the Central Administration, Brussels: International Institute of Administrative Sciences.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© David Farnham, Syvia Horton, John Barlow and Annie Handeghem 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manzoor Alam
  • Markku Kiviniemi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations