Instinct and Learning in the Natural Environment

  • Tony Malim
  • Ann Birch
  • Sheila Hayward
Part of the Introductory Psychology book series (IPS)


At the end of this chapter you should be able to:
  1. 1.

    Distinguish between phylogeny and ontogeny.

  2. 2.

    Understand and evaluate key terms such as ritualisation, parallel evolution and instinct.

  3. 3.

    Be familiar with the interaction of factors in the decisions made by animals when foraging.

  4. 4.

    Understand and evaluate the importance of early experience in learning situations, such as imprinting, and the interaction of Sign Stimuli with Fixed Action Patterns.

  5. 5.

    Appreciate the role of internal and external factors in the motivation of behaviour.

  6. 6.

    Identify and evaluate factors influencing the motivation of aggression.



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Further Reading

  1. N. R. Carlson, Foundations of Physiological Psychology, 2nd edn (Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon, 1992).Google Scholar
  2. R. A. Hinde, (1966) Animal Behaviour (London: McGraw-Hill, 1966).Google Scholar
  3. J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies, An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology, 3rd edn (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993).Google Scholar
  4. T. Malim, A. Birch and A. Wadeley, Perspectives in Psychology (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992).Google Scholar
  5. A. Manning and M. S. Dawkins, Animal Behaviour, 4th edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Tony Malim, Ann Birch and Sheila Hayward 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tony Malim
  • Ann Birch
  • Sheila Hayward

There are no affiliations available

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