All civil engineering work will involve some form of earthworks. This work may be a small or a large part of the construction but, however big, some form of mechanical equipment, called ‘Plant’ will be employed to carry out the earth-moving operations. In general earthwork can be classified into four broad categories:
  • Initial clearance of vegetation and trees and stripping of top soil

  • Excavation to form trenches or pits, known as confined excavations

  • Cuttings, known as open excavations

  • Construction of embankments and filled areas


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5.5 References

  1. 1.
    G. Barnes, Soil Mechanics, 1995 Macmillan Press, ISBN 0-333-59654-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    British Standards Institute. BS 1377: Part 1 to 9: 1990: British Standard Method of test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes. Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Department of Transport, Manual of Contract Documents for Highway Works. Vol 1 and 2, 1993 published by HMSO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dene R. Warren 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dene R. Warren
    • 1
  1. 1.Nene College of Higher EducationNorthamptonUK

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