A new stark reality emerged in the 1980s: the impact of industrial competition. In most industrial nations, the struggle to survive had become, by then, an integral part of each company’s way of life. To downsize, once an anathema to business, had become an acceptable course of action, demanded by necessity or some comprehensive corporate strategic decision. The economic world of the 1980s was very different from that of the 1960s and 1970s. The 1990s are continuing the trend but increasing the pace.
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Notes and references
- 1.Second Report from the Select Committee on Science and Technology, 1977/78, ‘Innovation, Research and Development in Japanese Science-based Industry’, vols 1 and 2 (HMSO, August 1978). These corporate responses provided as appendices to the Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Science and Technology (Japan Subcommittee) are as followsGoogle Scholar
- 2.K. Done, ‘Carmakers Hit the Panic Button: The European Auto Industry is Struggling Against Overcapacity, High Costs and a Fall in Demand’, Financial Times. 17 June 1993. p. 21.Google Scholar
- 3.Ibid.Google Scholar
- 4.S. Butler and R. Thomson, ‘No Winners in the Chip Race: Recession and Huge Excess Capacity are Hitting Japanese Semiconductor Manufacturers’, Financial Times, 21 January 1992, p. 17.Google Scholar
- 5.W. Skinner, ‘Operations Technology: Blind Spot in Strategic Management’, Harvard Business School Working Paper 83–85 (1983). p. 11.Google Scholar
- 6.W. Skinner, ‘Operations Technology’, p. 6. These views are also confirmed by the author in his book entitled Production/Operations Management (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991), pp. 186 and 187.Google Scholar
- 7.Advisory Council for Applied Research and Development, New Opportunities in Manufacturing: The Management of Technology (London: HMSO Cabinet Office, October 1983) p. 48Google Scholar
- 8.INSEAD, Manufacturing Futures Survey (Fontainebleau, France, 1990).Google Scholar
- 9.Kenichi Ohmae, The Mind of the Strategist (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982), pp. 36–7.Google Scholar