• Paul Beynon-Davies
Part of the Computer Science Series book series (COMPSS)


In his seminal paper on the relational data model, E. F. Codd formulated a number of design principles for a relational database (Codd, 1970). These principles were originally formalised in terms of three normal forms: first normal form, second normal form and third normal form. The process of transforming a database design through these three normal forms is known as normalisation. By the mid-1970s third normal form was shown to have certain inadequacies and a stronger normal form, known as Boyce-Codd normal form, was introduced (Codd, 1974). Subsequently Fagin introduced fourth normal form and indeed fifth normal form (Fagin 1977, 1979). In this chapter we consider Codd 's original ideas on normalisation whilst also describing a graphic technique used for designing fully normalised schema. We particularly emphasise the use of normalisation as a bottom-up technique for database design.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

12.10 References

  1. Codd E. F. (1970). ‘A Relational Model for Large Shared Data Banks.’ CACM. 13 (1). 377–387.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Codd E. F. (1974). ‘Recent Investigations into Relational Database Systems.’ Proc. IFIP Congress.Google Scholar
  3. Fagin R. (1977). ‘Multi-Valued Dependencies and a New Normal Form for Relational Databases.’ ACM Trans. on Database Systems. 2(1).Google Scholar
  4. Fagin R. (1979). ‘Normal Forms and Relational Database Operators. ACM SIGMOD Int. Symposium on the Management of Data.’ 153–160.Google Scholar
  5. Kent W. (1983). ‘A Simple Guide to Five Normal Forms in Relational Database Theory.’ CACM. 26(2).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© P. Beynon-Davies 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Beynon-Davies
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer StudiesUniversity of GlamorganUK

Personalised recommendations