Modes of Opposition Leading to Revolution in Eastern Europe

  • Gale Stokes


With the exception of a handful of books on Poland, work by a few Western social scientists on factories in Hungary, and the studies of two notable anthropologists who worked in Romania, essentially no social history of the post-Second World War period comparable to the work that has been done for twenty years or more in the West exists concerning Eastern Europe before 1989. The most obvious reason for this is that the Communist regimes forbade such work, since the findings of any real social science were likely to undermine the claims of the vanguard party. The entire sociology department of Charles University in Prague was disbanded after 1968, and in Bulgaria the field of “anthropology” is a post-1989 product. The primacy of the Cold War paradigm also hindered the development of investigations in the West that were not overtly political or economic. Even Western interest in the democratic opposition in Eastern Europe tended to lead to theoretical constructs, such as the widespread use of the concept of civil society, rather than to concrete research projects that investigated the sociological ingredients of this opposition.


Civil Society Communist Regime East European Country Democratic Form Democratic Movement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Teresa Toranska, “Them:” Stalin’s Polish Puppets (New York, 1987), 354.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Charles Gati, Hungary and the Soviet Bloc (Durham, 1986), 69.Google Scholar
  3. 9.
    Ted Kaminski, “Underground Publishing in Poland,” Orbis 31, no. 3 (Fall 1987): 328.Google Scholar
  4. 10.
    Leszek Kolakowski, “Hope and Hopelessness,” Survey 17, no. 3 (Summer 1971): 46.Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    Adam Michnik, Letters from Prison translated by Maya Latynski (Berkeley, 1985), 86.Google Scholar
  6. 12.
    H. Gordon Skilling, Charter 77 and Human Rights in Czechoslovakia (London, 1981), 211.Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    Vaclav Havel, Living in Truth edited by Jan Vladislav (London, 1968), 57.Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    Konstanty Gebert, “An Independent Society: Poland under Martial Law,” Alternatives, 15 (1990), 359 (quoting his own work originally published in February, 1982 ).Google Scholar
  9. 18.
    Jan J6zef Lipski, KOR: A History of the Workers’ Defense Committee in Poland (Berkeley, 1988), 44–5; and Timothy Garton Ash, Solidarity (New York, 1984), 280.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© New York University Press 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gale Stokes

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations