Urban Decline and Renewal

  • Paul N. Balchin
  • Gregory H. Bull
  • Jeffrey L. Kieve
Part of the Building and Surveying Series book series (BASS)


Urban change has been characterized by declining populations, faster than average decline of manufacturing industry, lack of new ‘hi-tech’ industries and a growing predominance of the service sector. Poor housing conditions exist in many areas caused by on the one hand, a higher than average share of the older housing stock, and on the other, high concentrations of 1960s and early 1970s system-built high-rise dwellings — around three-quarters of which (nationally, one million dwellings) are situated in only six metropolitan centres.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    P. White, The West European City (Longman, 1984).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. G. Champion (ed.), Counterurbanisation (Edward Arnold, 1989).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Conurbations in Yorkshire are not included as their geographical area of definition is much wider than in the case of the examples given.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. Van Vliet, Housing Needs & Policy Approaches: Trends in 13 Countries (Duke University Press, 1985).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cambridge Economic Policy Review, vol. 8 (Gower, 1982).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Balchin and G. Bull, Regional and Urban Economics (Paul Chapman, 1987).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Fothergill and G. Gudgin, Unequal Growth: Urban and Regional Employment Change in the UK (Heinemann, 1982).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Gripaios, ‘Industrial Decline in London’, Urban Studies, 14 (1977).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. Gaffikin and A. Nickson, Jobs Crisis and the Multi-Nationals, Birmingham Trade Union Group (Russell Press, 1984).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cambridge Economic Policy Review, Vol. 8.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Employment Gazette (HMSO, August 1990 and November 1989).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Housing and Construction Statistics (HMSO, 1990).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    See A. G. Champion, Counterurbanisation.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. J. L. Berry (ed.), Urbanisation and Counterurbanisation (Sage, 1976).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    See I. Hoch, ‘City Size and US Urban Policy’, Urban Studies, 24 (1987).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Congdon and P. Batey (eds), ch. 11 in Advances in Regional Demography (Belhaven, 1989).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. E. Case, ‘The Real Estate Cycle and the Economy’, Urban Studies, 29 (1992).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Illeris, ‘Urban and Regional Development in W. Europe in the 1990s’, Scandinavian Housing and Planning Research, 9 (1992).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    See A. G. Champion (ed.), Counterurbanisation.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. G. Champion, ‘Urban and Regional Demographic Trends in the Developed World’, Urban Studies 29 (May 1992).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. G. Champion (ed.), Counterurbanisation.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    W. H. Frey, ‘United States: Counterurbanisation and Metropolis Depopulation’, in A. G. Champion (ed.), Counterurbanisation.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. G. Champion (ed.), Counterurbanisation.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. Moore and W. Clark, ‘Housing and Households in American Cities: Structure and Change in Population Mobility’, in D Myers (ed.), Housing Demography (University of Wisconsin Press, 1990).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. S. Bourne, ‘The Myth and Reality of Gentrification: A Commentary on Emerging Urban Forms’, Urban Studies, 30 (1993).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. Badcock, ‘Notwithstanding the Exaggerated Claims, Residential Revitalisation Really is Changing the Form of Some Western Cities: A Response to Bourne,’ Urban Studies, 30 (1993).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Fielding, ‘Migration and Urbanisation in Western Europe since 1950’, The Geographical Journal, 155 (1989).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    See conclusion in A. G. Champion (ed.), Counterurbanisation.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Hill and M. Munday, ‘The UK Regional Distribution of Foreign Direct Investment,’ Regional Studies, 26, 6 (1992).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. Massey, P. Quintas and D. Wield, High-Tech Fantasies, Science Parks in Society, Science and Space, (Routledge, 1991).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    See J. Glasson, ‘The Fall and Rise of Regional Planning in the Economically Advanced Nations’, Urban Studies, 29 (1992).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    P. Cheshire, ‘Explaining the Recent Performance of the European Community’s Major Urban Regions’, Urban Studies, 27 (1990).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Illeris, ‘Urban and Regional Development in Western Europe in the 1990’s.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    L. Van den Berg, R. Drewett, L. Klassen, A. Rossi and C. Vijverberg, Urban Europe: A Study of Growth and Decline (Pergamon, 1982); and N. Vanhove and L. Klassen, Regional Policy: A European Approach (Saxon House, 1980).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. Cheshire and D. Hay, Urban Problems in Europe (Allen & Unwin, 1988).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    H. Blumenfeld, ‘The Tidal Wave of Metropolitan Expansion’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners (Winter, 1954).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. R. Boyce, ‘The Edge of the Metropolis: The Wave Theory Analog Approach’, British Columbia Geographical Series, 7 (1966).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
    L. S. Bourne, Private Redevelopment of the Central City (University of Chicago Press, 1967).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    See B. Walker, Welfare Economics and Urban Problems, ch. 6 (Hutchinson, 1987).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. W. R. Whitehand, The Changing Face of Cities: A Study of Development Cycles and Urban Form, (Blackwell, 1987).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Confederation of British Industry, Economic Situation (CBI, 1977); P. Townsend, P. Corrigan and U. Kowarzik, Poverty and Labour in London (Low Pay Unit, 1987).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    S. Fothergill and G. Gudgin, Unequal Growth.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    L. Needleman, The Economics of Housing (Staples Press, 1965).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    S. Merrett, State Housing in Britain (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. A. Kirby, Slum Housing and Residential Renewal. The Case in Urban Britain (Longman, 1979).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    W. Lean, ‘Housing Rehabilitation or Redevelopment: The Economic Assessment’, Journal of the Town Planning Institute, 57 (1971).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. G. Bagby, Housing Rehabilitation Costs (Lexington Books, 1973); D. Listokin, The Dynamics of Housing Rehabilitation. Macro and Micro Analysis (Centre for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, 1973).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    National Community Development Project, The Poverty of the Improvement Programme (CDP Information and Intelligence Unit, 1975).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Taylor, ‘Property Market’, Financial Times (19 June 1984).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Roger Tyn and Partners (1984), Monitoring Enterprise Zones: Year Three Report (Department of the Environment, 1984).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    I. Wray, ‘Enterprise Was Radical only in its Rhetoric’, Guardian (30 July 1986).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    N. Ridley, speaking on ‘The London Programme’, London Weekend Television (29 May 1987).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Archbishop of Canterbury’s Commission on Urban Priority Areas, Faith in the City (Church House Publishing, 1985).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Town and Country Planning Association, Whose Responsibility?, Reclaiming the Inner Cities (TPCS, 1986).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    D. Cadman, ‘Private Capital and the Inner City’, Estates Gazette (31 March 1979).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Layfield Committee of Inquiry into Local Government Finance, Cmnd 6453 (HMSO, 1976).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Department of the Environment, Paying for Local Government, Cmnd 9714 (HMSO, 1986).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A. Travers, ‘New Year Rates Shock for Nearly a Million Businesses’, Guardian (2 January 1990).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    See Land and Liberty, ‘How Thatcher Boosted Price of Houses’, July–August 1987.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Paul N. Balchin, Gregory H. Bull and Jeffrey L. Kieve 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul N. Balchin
    • 1
  • Gregory H. Bull
    • 1
  • Jeffrey L. Kieve
  1. 1.University of GreenwichUK

Personalised recommendations