Advertisement

Urban Service Provision in a Plural Society: Approaches in Malaysia

  • Lim Hong Hai
Chapter

Abstract

The plural nature of Malaysian society has exercised a strong and enduring influence on the country’s politics and development policies since national independence in 1957. According to the 1980 Census, Malaysia has a total population of about 11.4 million, of which about 53 per cent are Malays, 35 per cent are Chinese and 11 per cent are Indians.1 Priority has been given by the Malay-dominated independent government to improving the economic position of Malays who are generally poorer and more rural than the country’s other major racial group, the Chinese. Before 1970, the government’s major strategy to achieve this objective was rural development; which sought to bring about ‘a massive redistribution of income from the non-Malay modern economy to the (Malay) rural economy’.2 This strategy has been criticised not only for its failure to improve rural incomes but also for keeping Malays in the low-productivity traditional primary sector and perpetuating the spatial separation of the races and the identification of occupation with race. Following the 1969 racial riots in Kuala Lumpur (which, in the government’s view, were caused by the persistent economic disparities between the races), the so-called New Economic Policy was formulated and launched in the Second Malaysia Plan, 1971–1975.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 3.
    Kamal Salih, ‘Urban Strategy, Regional Development and the New Economic Policy’ (Paper presented at the 2nd Malaysian Economic Convention, Kuala Lumpur, 26–30 March, 1975).Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    Otto Koenigsberger, ‘Cities for Urban Pioneers’, Ekistics, 249 (August 1976).Google Scholar
  3. 7.
    Emiel A. Wegelin, Urban Low-Income Housing and Development (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 9.
    M. K. Sen, The Rehabilitation and Resettlement of Squatters — The KL Experience (1973).Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    Bailah Leigh, ‘Interrelationships between Health and Development in an Urban Squatter Area in Malaysia — The Sang Kancil Project’, Community Development Journal, 18 (No. 2, 1983).Google Scholar
  6. 13.
    Ralph Diaz, ‘Restructuring Services to Reach the Urban Poor in Kuala Lumpur’, Assignment Children, no. 57/58 (1982).Google Scholar
  7. 14.
    Z. Alias, ‘The Jalan Pekeliling Low-cost Flats: an Attempt at the Provision of Cheap Housing’, Geographical, 9, (1974) p. 66.Google Scholar
  8. 15.
    Ralph Diaz, ‘Restructuring Services to Reach the Urban Poor in Kuala Lumpur’, Assignment Children no. 57/58 (1982) p. 140.Google Scholar
  9. 18.
    Ministry of Federal Territory, NADI Program: ‘My Beloved Family,’ 1980.Google Scholar
  10. 19.
    Development and Coordination Department, City Hall, Kuala Lumpur, The NADI Programme: A Brief Account of its Formation and Establishment, 1983.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The United Nations 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lim Hong Hai

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations