Other Methods of Collecting Data

  • Philip Burnard
  • Paul Morrison


These are:
  • To explore a variety of other research data collection methods;

  • To consider the appropriateness or otherwise of these methods for your project;

  • To identify key references for further reading on these methods.


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Further Readings

  1. Field, P.A. and Morse, J.M. (1985) Nursing Research: The Application of Qualitative Approaches, Croom Helm, London.Google Scholar
  2. Sweener, M.A. and Oliveri, P. (1981) An Introduction to Nursing Research: Research, Measurement and Computers in Nursing, Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  3. Van Maanen, J. (1983) Qualitative Methodology, Sage, Beverly Hills, California.Google Scholar
  4. Verhonick, P. and Seaman, C. (1978) Research Methods for Undergraduate Students in Nursing, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Harris, R.B. and Hyman, R.B. (1984) ‘Clean versus sterile tracheostomy care and level of pulmonary infection’, Nursing Research, 33 (2) 80–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. While, A.E. (1987) ‘Records as a data source: the case for health-visitor records’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 12 (6) 757–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bannister, D. and Fransella, F. (1986) Inquiring Man, 3rd edn, Croom Helm, London.Google Scholar
  8. Beail, N. (1985) Repertory Grid Technique and Personal Constructs, Croom Helm, London.Google Scholar
  9. Burnard, P. and Morrison, P. (1989) ‘What is an interpersonally skilled person? A repertory grid account of professional nurses’ views’, Nurse Education Today, 9, 384–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Morrison, P. (1990) ‘An example of the use of repertory grid technique in assessing nurses’ self-perceptions of caring’, Nurse Education Today, 10, 253–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pollock, L.C. (1986) ‘An introduction to the use of repertory grid technique as a research method and clinical tool for psychiatric nurses’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 11, 439–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Stewart, V. and Stewart, A. (1981) Business Applications of Repertory Grid, McGraw-Hill, London.Google Scholar
  13. Clamp, C.G.L. (1984) ‘Learning Through Incidents: Studies in the Development and Use of Critical Incidents in the Teaching of Attitudes in Nursing’, unpublished MPhil Thesis, University of London Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  14. Cormack, D.F.S. (1983) Psychiatric Nursing Described, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  15. Cormack, D.F.S. (1984) ‘Flanagan’s Critical Incident Technique’ in Cormack, D.F.S. (ed.) The Research Process in Nursing, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 118–25.Google Scholar
  16. Dunn, W.R. and Hamilton, D.D. (1986) ‘The critical incident technique: a brief guide’, Medical Teacher, 8 (3) 207–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flanagan, J.C. (1954) ‘The Critical Incident Technique’, Psychological Bulletin, 51 (4) 327–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Canter, D., Brown, J. and Groat, L. (1985) ‘A multiple sorting procedure for studying conceptual systems’ in Brenner, M., Brown, J. and Canter, D. (eds) The Research Interview: Uses and Approaches, Academic Press, London, pp. 79–114.Google Scholar
  19. Groat, L. (1982) ‘Meaning in post-modern architecture: an examination using the multiple sorting task’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2 (3) 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrison, P. and Bauer, I. (1993) ‘A clinical application of the clinical sorting technique’, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 30 (6) 511–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wilson, M.A. and Canter, D.V. (1990) ‘The development of central concepts during professional education: a example of a multivariate model of the concept of architectural style’, Applied Psychology: an international review, 39 (4) 431–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Anastasi, A. (1988) Psychological Testing, 6th edn, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Antonak, R.F. and Livneh, H. (1988) The Measurement of Attitudes toward People with Disabilities: Methods, Psychometrics and Scales, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  24. Bowling, A. (1991) Measuring Health: A Review of Quality of Life Measurement Scales, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.Google Scholar
  25. Robinson, J.P. and Shaver, P.R. (1973) Measurement of Social Psychological Attitudes, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  26. Ward, M.J. and Felter, M.E. (1979) Instruments for Use in Nursing Education Research, Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, Colorado.Google Scholar
  27. Choon, G.L. and Skevington, S.M. (1984) ‘How do women and men in nursing perceive each other?’, in Skevington, S. (ed.), Understanding Nurses, Wiley, Chichester, pp. 101–11.Google Scholar
  28. Kerlinger, F. (1986) Foundations of Behavioural Research, 3rd edn, CBS Publishing, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  29. Osgood, C.E., Suci, G.J. and Tannenbaum, P.H. (1957) The Measurement of Meaning, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois.Google Scholar
  30. Bond, S. and Bond, J. (1982) ‘A Delphi survey of clinical nursing research priorities’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 7 (6) 565–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis, B.D. and Burnard, P. (1992) ‘Academic levels in nursing’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17, 1395–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fielding, G. (1984) ‘Professional problems of caring for the cancer patient’, International Review of Applied Psychology, 33, 545–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Goodman, C.M. (1987) ‘The Delphi technique: a critique’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 12 (6) 729–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bromley, D.B. (1986) The Case-Study Method in Psychology and Related Disciplines, Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  35. Yin, R.K. (1989) Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 2nd edn, Sage, London.Google Scholar
  36. Henerson, M.E., Morris, L.L. and Fitz-Gibbon, C.T. (1987) How to Measure Attitudes, Sage, Beverly Hills, California.Google Scholar
  37. Ruffing-Rahal, M.A. (1986) ‘Personal documents and personal theory development’, Advances in Nursing Science, 8 (3) 50–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Woods, N.F. (1981) ‘The health diary as an instrument for nursing research: problems and promise’, Western Journal of Nursing Research, 3 (1) 76–92.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Philip Burnard and Paul Morrison 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip Burnard
    • 1
  • Paul Morrison
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Wales College of MedicineCardiffUK

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