• M. J. Usher
  • D. A. Keating
Part of the New Electronics Series book series


So far in this book we have concentrated on sensors and transducers which allow some physical parameter to be represented in an electrical form. These are the input transducers mentioned in chapter 1. In this chapter we will consider output transducers which take electrical signals and produce a physical effect (radiant energy giving light, mechanical energy giving physical movement, etc.). These perform three useful functions:
  1. (1)

    they allow a human operator to observe the output, for example a moving coil meter

  2. (2)

    they allow the output to be used for feedback, for example a coi/magnet assembly in a force-balance system (see chapter 8)

  3. (3)

    they can produce a physical excitation, for example a piezoelectric ultrasonic transmitter in a sonar system (see chapter 10).



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Copyright information

© M.J. Usher and D.A. Keating 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Usher
    • 1
  • D. A. Keating
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of CyberneticsUniversity of ReadingUK

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