Physical Effects available for Use in Transducers
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An interesting three-dimensional representation of transducers was proposed by Middelhoek and Noorlag (1981b), shown in figure 3.1. The primary energy input to the system is represented by the jc-axis and the energy output by the y-axis. Self-generating transducers therefore lie in the x-y plane. With the six forms of energy discussed above we have 36 possibilities, of which 30 are true selfgenerators and six modifiers (having the same form at both input and output). The most important self-generating input transducers are the five having electrical output, shown as crosses in figure 3.1; the most important actuators (having electrical input) are shown as squares, and the six modifiers as small circles.
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