• Susumu Watanabe
Part of the The Macmillan Series of ILO Studies book series (ILOS)


Computerisation of industrial production processes is one of the key components of today’s ‘new technologies’, together with advanced biotechnologies and new material technologies. Yet, the use of computers in industries is not that new, even in the Third World. Already two decades ago an ILO publication noted as follows: 1

By the end of the decade [the 1960s] … automated refineries, breweries and chemical plants had been set up in the tropics, and computers had replaced clerks in banks, insurance companies, airlines, public utilities and even cotton mills, not to mention government ministries. French-speaking Africa had an estimated 100 computers; India, the Republic of Korea, Singapore and Taiwan had 160 between them. The Colombian Government alone had 14. These are small numbers compared with the 5,700 computers in Japan (in 1969) and the 60,000 in the United States, but they seemed to presage greater, perhaps ill-boding, trends …


Machine Tool Foreign Direct Investment Flexible Manufacturing System Computer Integrate Manufacturing Factory Automation 
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Copyright information

© International Labour Organisation 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susumu Watanabe

There are no affiliations available

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