Comparing the Jobs: the Managers’ Views

  • Rosemary Stewart
  • Jean-Louis Barsoux


The twelve jobs were selected to include different functions and types of organization as well as to represent a range of chief executive, senior and middle management jobs. ‘Senior’ is used for those reporting to a board director or the managing director. ‘Middle’ is used for managers who have other managers reporting to them but who report to someone below board level. The breakdown by management level is given in 1.
Table 1

Management levels of jobs


Family Firm Chief Executive Sales Director Store Manager Site Manager 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. 1.
    Bentz, who was for many years the Director of Psychological Research Services for Sears Roebuck, the American chain store, has suggested a combined construct of scope/scale. He defines scope as the number of functions embraced within a position; it is the breadth of management. Scale is the ‘internal complexity and diversity of content, mission or function within and across the units managed, within and across decisions made, within and across varieties of personal relationships’. He says that ‘the construct of scope/scale is in its infancy. Much work needs to be done to extend and modify the nature of its meaning.’ His interest was in the ways in which scope/scale changes at different levels in the management hierarchy and he argues that it increases dramatically where upper management responsibilities begin (J. Jon Bentz, Explorations of Scope and Scale: The Critical Determinant of High-level Executive Effectiveness (Greensboro, N.C.: Center for Creative Leadership) Technical Report 31, Sept. 1987, p. 12).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    For a discussion of these aspects of jobs, see Rosemary Stewart, Managers Today and Tomorrow (London: Macmillan, 1991) pp. 13–81, and Choices for the Manager (Maidenhead, Berks: McGraw-Hill, and Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosemary Stewart, Contrasts in Management: A Study of Different Types of Managers’ Jobs, Their Demands and Choices (Maidenhead, Berks: McGraw-Hill, 1976) first developed the concept of boss-dependence as a distinguishing characteristic of some jobs and one that varies in intensity.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Rosemary Stewart and Jean-Louis Barsoux 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosemary Stewart
  • Jean-Louis Barsoux

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