The determinants of health

  • John Kemm
  • Ann Close


To understand that the individual’s health is strongly influenced by their environment and their lifestyle and that these factors produce marked inequalities of health.


Sulphur Dioxide Passive Smoking Unwanted Pregnancy Protein Energy Malnutrition Public Transport System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anon (1991). Ozone too much in the wrong place. Lancet 338, 221–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balarajan R. and Raleigh V.S. (1993). Ethnicity and health: a guide for the NHS. London: Department of Health.Google Scholar
  3. Blackburn C. (1991). Poverty and health: working with families. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  4. BMA (British Medical Association) (1992). Cycling towards health and safety. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Central Statistical Office (1994). Transport. Chapter 13 in Social Trends 24. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  6. Coleman A. (1985). Utopia on trial: Vision and reality in planned housing. London: Shipman.Google Scholar
  7. DHSS (Department of Health and Social Security) (1984). Diet and cardiovascular disease. Report of the panel on diet in relation to cardiovascular disease. Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  8. Diamant B.Z. (1992). Assessment and evaluation of the International Water Decade. Journal of Royal Society of Health 112, 183–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. DoH (Department of Health) (1990). Group of experts. Report on Cryptosporidium in water supples (Badenoch Report). London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  10. Emery A.E.H. and Mueller R.F. (1992). Genetic factors in some common diseases. Chapter 10 in Elements of medical genetics (6th edition). Edinburgh; Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  11. Faculty of Public Health Medicine (1991). Alcohol and the public health. Basingstoke: Macmillan Education Ltd.Google Scholar
  12. Fentem P., Bassey J. and Turnbull N.B. (1988). The new case for exercise. London Sports Council and Health Education Authority.Google Scholar
  13. Friends of the Earth (1990). Cycling and the healthy city. London: Friends of the Earth.Google Scholar
  14. Graham H. (1993). When life’s a drag: women smoking and disadvantage. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  15. HEA (Health Education Authority) (1991). Health Update No. 2: Smoking. London: Health Education Authority.Google Scholar
  16. HEA (Health Education Authority) (1993). Health Update No. 3: Alcohol. London: Health Education Authority.Google Scholar
  17. Heath C.W. (1993). Passive smoking: environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer. Lancet 341, 526.Google Scholar
  18. Ineichen B. (1993). Homes and health. London: Spon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. James W.P.T. (1988). Healthy nutrition: preventing nutrition related disease in Europe. WHO European Regional Publication No. 24.Google Scholar
  20. Jarvis M. (1992). Passive smoking. In Heller T., Bailey L. and Pattison S. (eds.), Preventing cancers. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Lowry S. (1991). Housing and health. London: British Medical Journal.Google Scholar
  22. McMichael A. (1993) Global environmental change and human population: a conceptual and scientific challenge for epidemiology. International Journal of Epidemiology 22, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Monkley-Poole S. (1992). Nursing responses to environmental issues. Nursing Standards 6 (No. 28), 32–33.Google Scholar
  24. National Advisory Committee on Nutrition Education (NACNE) (1983). A discussion paper on proposals for nutritional guidelines for health education in Britain. London: Health Education Council.Google Scholar
  25. Office of Health Economics (1993). Briefing Number 29: Impact of unemployment on health.Google Scholar
  26. OPCS (Office of Population Censuses and Surveys) (1993). General household survey 1992. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  27. Read C. (1991). Air pollution and child health. London: Greenpeace.Google Scholar
  28. Royal College of Physicians (1983). Obesity. A report of the Royal College of Physicians. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians London 17, 3–58.Google Scholar
  29. Smith A. (1992). Setting a strategy for health. British Medical Journal 304, 376–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Smith R. (1987). Unemployment and health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Strauss W. and Mainwaring S.J. (1984). Air pollution. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  32. Truswell A.S. (1992). A.B.C. of nutrition (2nd edition). London: British Medical Journal.Google Scholar
  33. Walker A. (1992). Swimming — the hazards of taking a dip. British Medical Journal 304, 242–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. WHO (World Health Organisation)(1992). Our planet, our health. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  35. Wolff S.P. and Gilham C.J. (1991). Public health versus public policy: An appraisal of British urban transport policy. Public Health 105, 217–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© John Kemm and Ann Close 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Kemm
  • Ann Close

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations