In many engineering projects, large parcels of land are required for the site and huge amounts of material have to be moved in order to form the necessary embankments, cuttings, foundations, basements, lakes and so on, that have been specified in the design. Suitable land and materials can be very expensive and, if a project is to be profitable to the construction company involved, it is essential that its engineers make as accurate a measurement as possible of any areas and volumes involved in order that appropriate cost estimates for such earthwork quantities can be included in the tender documents (see chapter 14).
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