Galanin pp 43-65 | Cite as

Neuroendocrine regulation of galanin gene expression

  • L. M. Kaplan
  • S. C. Hooi
  • D. R. Abraczinskas
  • R. M. Strauss
  • M. B. Davidson
  • D. W. Hsu
  • J. I. Koenig
Part of the Wenner-Gren Center International Symposium Series book series


Over the past several decades, we have come to appreciate the central role of intercellular communication in the regulation of normal homeostasis. Effective communication requires a dynamic web of pathways that carry precise, and informative, messages. Several classes of molecules have been shown to carry these messages, including nucleosides, amino acids, complex amines, carbohydrates, steroids, and peptides. Our understanding of the importance of small peptides in this communications network has been expanded by the physiological and pharmacological studies of numerous investigators over the past sixty years. This understanding has led to a search for additional peptide mediators to account for the exquisite subtleties of intercellular communication. Dr. Victor Mutt, whom we honor by this volume, has led the efforts to identify and characterize such peptides and is responsible for the discovery of several of the most important of them. As described elsewhere in this volume, one of the more recent products of these investigations is galanin, an amidated peptide isolated and purified from copious quantities of porcine intestinal extracts (Tatemoto et al., 1983). Amino acid sequence and structural analysis suggest that galanin is unrelated to any of the other known families of regulatory peptides, and to date it remains the only known member of its own family.


PC12 Cell Nerve Growth Factor Neuroendocrine Regulation Estradiol Benzoate Upstream Flank Region 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Chatterjee VK, Ball JA, Davis TM, Proby C, Burrin JM, Bloom SR. (1988) The effect of cholinergic blockade on the growth hormone response to galanin in humans. Metabolism 37:1089–1091.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Davis TM, Burrin JM, Bloom SR. (1987) Growth hormone (GH) release in response to GH-releasing hormone in man is 3-fold enhanced by galanin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 65:1248–1252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fisone G, Langel U, Carlquist M, Bergman T, Consolo S, Hökfelt T, Unden A, Andell S, Bartfai T. (1989) Galanin receptor and its ligands in the rat hippocampus. Eur J Biochem 181:269–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fox JE, Brooks B, McDonald TJ, Barnett W, Kostolanska F, Yanaihara C, Yanaihara N, Rökaeus Å. (1988) Actions of galanin fragments on rat, guinea-pig, and canine intestinal motility. Peptides 9:1183-1189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gabriel SM, Kaplan LM, Martin JB, Koenig JI. (1989) Tissue-specific sex differences in galanin-like immunoreactivity and galanin mRNA during development in the rat. Peptides 10:369–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gabriel SM, Koenig JI, Kaplan LM. (1990) Galanin-like immunoreactivity is influenced by estrogen in peripubertal and adult rats. Neuroendocrinology 51:168–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Glass CK, Holloway JM, Devary OV, Rosenfeld MG. (1988) The thyroid hormone receptor binds with opposite transcriptional effects to a common sequence motif in thyroid hormone and estrogen response elements. Cell 54:313–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hames BD, Glover DM. (1988) Transcription and Splicing. Frontiers in Molecular Biology. Oxford: IRL Press.Google Scholar
  9. Hooi SC, Koenig JI, Gabriel SM, Maiter DM, Martin JB. (1990a) Influence of thyroid hormone on the concentration of galanin in the rat brain and pituitary. Neuroendocrinology 51:351–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hooi SC, Maiter DM, Martin JB, Koenig JI. (1990b) Galaninergic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of corticotropin and thyrotropin secretion in the rat. Endocrinology 127:2281–2289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hsu DW, El-Azouzi M, Black PM, Chin WW, Hedley-Whyte ET, Kaplan LM. (1990) Estrogen increases galanin immunoreactivity in hyperplastic prolactin-secreting cells in Fischer 344 rats. Endocrinology 126:3159–3167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kaplan LM, Spindel ER, Isselbacher KJ, Chin WW. (1988a) Tissue-specific expression of the rat galanin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:1065–1069.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaplan LM, Gabriel SM, Koenig JI, Sunday ME, Spindel ER, Martin JB, Chin WW. (1988b) Galanin is an estrogen-inducible, secretory product of the rat anterior pituitary. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:7408–7412.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lopez FJ, Merchenthaler I, Ching M, Wisniewski MG, Negro-Vilar A. (1990) Galanin: a hypothalamic-hypophysiotropic hormone modulating reproductive functions. Endo Soc Abst 72:140 (Abst 464).Google Scholar
  15. Merchenthaler I, Negro-Vilar A. (1990) Sexual dimorphism in the co-expression of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) and galanin in the preoptic region of the rat brain. Endo Soc Abst 72:141 (Abst 465).Google Scholar
  16. Ottelcz A, Snyder GD, McCann SM. (1988) Regulatory role of galanin in control of hypothalamic-anterior pituitary function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:9861–9865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rökaeus Å (1987) Galanin: a newly isolated biologically active neuropeptide. Trends Neurosci 10:158–164.Google Scholar
  18. Rökaeus Å, Carlquist M. (1988) Nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNAs encoding bovine galanin precursor protein in the adrenal medulla and chemical isolation of bovine gut galanin. FEBS Lett 234:400–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rökaeus Å, Brownstein MJ. (1986) Construction of a porcine adrenal medullary cDNA library and nucleotide sequence analysis of two clones encoding a galanin precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:6287–6291.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sawchenko PE, Levin MC. (1987) Immunohistochemical evidence for modulation by estrogen of neuropeptide coexpression in the magnocellular neurosecretory system of the female rat. Soc Neurosci Abst 17:1371 (Abst 378.11) .Google Scholar
  21. Tatemoto K, Rökaeus Å, Jörnvall H, McDonald TJ, Mutt V. (1983) Galanin — a novel biologically active peptide from porcine intestine. FEBS Lett 164:124–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Vrontakis ME, Peden LM, Duckworth MC, Friesen HG. (1987) Isolation and characterization of a complementary DNA (galanin) clone from estrogen induced pituitary tumor messenger RNA. J Biol Chem 35:16755–16757.Google Scholar
  23. Vrontakis ME, Sano T, Kovacs K, Friesen HG. (1990) Presence of galanin-like immunoreactivity in nontumorous corticotrophs and corticotroph adenomas of the human pituitary. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70:747–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xu X-J, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z, Villar MJ, Fahrenkrug J, Hokfelt T. (1990) On the role of galanin, substance P and other neuropeptides in primary sensory neurons of the rat: studies on spinal reflex excitability and peripheral axotomy. Eur J Neurosci 2:733–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Wenner-Gren Center 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. M. Kaplan
  • S. C. Hooi
  • D. R. Abraczinskas
  • R. M. Strauss
  • M. B. Davidson
  • D. W. Hsu
  • J. I. Koenig

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations