Abstract

Various established patterns of relationship can be discerned from the examination of the history of Sino-Thai relations. Between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries, Thailand (as a collective name for the various Thai kingdoms) had a tributary relationship with the Chinese empire. However, it remained on the periphery of Chinese political influence, for China practically did not interfere with Thailand’s internal affairs. Moreover, this tributary relationship was, from Thai rulers’ point of view, essentially a commercial rather than a political one. When the political order of Southeast Asia was changed by the Western imperialist powers in the nineteenth century, Thailand adapted itself to the new order. Official and formal contacts with China ceased as Thailand embraced the Western system of diplomatic relations and the Chinese empire went into decline. Trade, migration, and cultural exchange between the two countries carried on without formal diplomatic framework until 1946, when Thailand established diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (ROC), under the Kuomintang (KMT) Nationalist government.

Keywords

Migration Europe Shipping Expense Opium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Khien Theeravit, ‘The Relationship between Thailand and China — problems and prospects’, Bangkok Bank Monthly Review, Vol. 19, No. 12, December 1978, p. 566.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khien Theeravit, ‘Nayobai lae konlayut khong satharanarat prachachon jin to thai (The People’s Republic of China’s Policies and Tactics towards Thailand)’, in Jin kap sangkhom lok (Communist China and World Society), (Bangkok, Social Science Association of Thailand Press, 1976), p. 178. See also, Khien Theeravit, ‘Khosangket kieokap nayobai tangprathet khong thai (Notes on Thai Foreign Policy)’, The Social Science Review (Bangkok), Vol. 13, No. 1, January–March 1975.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Suebsaeng Promboon, ‘Thai kap satharanarat prachachon jin: wikhro naeo nayobai tangprathet (Thailand and the PRC: A Foreign Policy Analysis)’, The Journal of Social Sciences (Bangkok), Vol. XI, No. 4, October 1974, p. 9.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Narumitr Sodsuk, Samphanthaphap thang kanthut rawang thai kap satharanarat prachachon jin (Diplomatic Relations between Thailand and the People’s Republic of China), (Bangkok, Thai Wattanapanich Press, 1981), p. 30.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thani Sukkasem, Sino-Thai Relations: An Analysis of Thai Policy Towards China, 1949–1972, M. Pol.Sc. thesis [in Thai], (Thammasat University, Bangkok, 1973), pp. 307–310.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Department of International Relations, Chulalongkorn University, China in Thai Perspective, Asian Studies Monograph No. 027, April 1980, p. 15.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kullada Kesboonchoo, ‘Patterns of Thai Diplomacy: A Historical Study’, The Journal of Social Sciences (Bangkok), Vol. X, No. 4, October 1973, pp. 43–46. See also E. W. Hutchinson, Adventurers in Siam in the Seventeenth Century (London, The Royal Asiatic Society, 1940), Chapters II, III, and IV, pp. 19–91.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. G. E. Hall, A History of South-East Asia (London, The Macmillan Press, 1981), pp. 388–392. See also Hutchinson, Adventurers in Siam, Chapters V and VII, pp. 92–112 and 155–178.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    See E. W. Hutchinson, 1688 Revolution in Siam (Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press, 1968).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    David K. Wyatt, Thailand: A Short History (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1984), pp. 117–118.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. L. Manich Jumsai, History of Anglo-Thai Relations (Bangkok, Chalermnit, 1970), p. 50.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    James C. Ingram, Economic Change in Thailand, 1850–1970 (Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1971), p. 35.Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    Chandran Jeshurun, The Contest for Siam 1889–1902: A Study in Diplomatic Rivalry (Kuala Lumpur, Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1977), p. 57.Google Scholar
  14. 17.
    Kamol Somvichian, The Thai Military in Politics: An Analytical Study, Ph.D. thesis (University of London, 1969), pp. 28–39.Google Scholar
  15. 18.
    See Prayoon Phamonmontri, Chiwit 5 phaendin khong khaphachao (My Life through Five Reigns), (Bangkok, Bannakit, 1975); also Pridi Phanomyong (sic), ‘Some Stories Concerning the Formation of the People’s Party and Democracy’, in Thak Chaloemtiarana (ed.), Thai Politics: 1932–1957, Vol. I Extracts and Documents (Bangkok, Social Science Association of Thailand Press, 1978), pp. 51–70.Google Scholar
  16. 19.
    Nicholas Tarling, ‘King Prajadhipok and the Apple Cart: British Attitudes towards the 1932 Revolution’, The Journal of the Siam Society (Bangkok), Vol. 64, pt. 2, July 1976, p. 9.Google Scholar
  17. 20.
    Sir Josiah Crosby, Siam: The Crossroads (London, Hallis Carter, 1945), p. 63.Google Scholar
  18. 21.
    Chatri Ritharom, The Making of the Thai-U.S. Military Alliance and the SEATO Treaty of 1954: A Study in Thai Decision-Making, Ph.D. thesis, (Claremont, 1976), p. 100.Google Scholar
  19. 22.
    Charnvit Kasetsiri, ‘The First Phibun Government and Its Involvement in World War II’, The Journal of the Siam Society (Bangkok), Vol. 62, pt. 2, July 1974, p. 38.Google Scholar
  20. 24.
    Thamsook Numnonda, ‘Pibulsongkram’s Thai Nation-Building Programme during the Japanese Military Presence, 1941–1945’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. IX, No. 2, September 1978, p. 235. See also Likhit Dhiravegin, Nationalism and the State in Thailand, Monograph Series No. 8 (Bangkok, Faculty of Political Science, Thammasat University, 1985), pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  21. 26.
    John Coast, Some Aspects of Siamese Politics (New York, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1953), p. 15. For Luang Vichitr Vadhakarn’s own work, see Sayam kap suwannaphum (Siam and the Land of Gold), (Bangkok, 1933).Google Scholar
  22. 27.
    Direk Jayanama, Thai kap songkhram lok khrang thi song (Thailand and the Second World War), (Bangkok, Prae Pittaya, 1967), pp. 42–43.Google Scholar
  23. 28.
    Edward Thadeus Flood, Japan’s Relations with Thailand: 1928–41, Ph.D. thesis (University of Washington, 1967), pp. 236–238.Google Scholar
  24. 29.
    Apichart Chinwanno, Thailand’s Search for Protection: The Making of the Alliance with the United States, 1947–1954, D.Phil. thesis (University of Oxford, 1985), p. 50.Google Scholar
  25. 31.
    Edward Thadeus Flood, ‘The 1940 Franco-Thai Border Dispute and Phibuun Sonkhraam’s Commitment to Japan’, Journal of Southeast Asian History, Vol. X. No. 2. Sentember 1969. pp. 321–322.Google Scholar
  26. 33.
    James V. Martin, Jr., ‘Thai-American Relations in World War II’, Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. XXII, No. 4, August 1963, pp. 453–454. See also Songsri Foran, Thai-British-American Relations during World War II and the Immediate Postwar Period, 1940–1946, Paper No. 10 (Bangkok, Thai Khadi Research Institute, Thammasat University, 1981), pp. 9–12.Google Scholar
  27. 35.
    William L. Swan, ‘Thai-Japanese Relations at the Start of the Pacific War: New Insight into a Controversial Period’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. XVIII, No. 2, September 1987, p. 273.Google Scholar
  28. 39.
    Ian Nish, Japanese Foreign Policy, 1869–1942 (London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977), p. 244.Google Scholar
  29. 47.
    Wiwat Mungkandi, ‘Ready Resiliency: A Hobson’s Choice in Thai Diplomacy’, The Journal of Social Sciences (Bangkok), Vol. XIII, No. 1, January 1976, pp. 51–52.Google Scholar
  30. 49.
    Netr Khemayothin, Ngan taidin khong phan-ek yothi (The Under-ground Work of Colonel Yothi), (Bangkok, Kasembannakit, 1967), P. 1.Google Scholar
  31. 50.
    J. B. Haseman, The Thai Resistance Movement during the Second World War, Center for Southeast Asian Studies Special Report No. 17 (Northern Illinois University, 1978), p. 60.Google Scholar
  32. 51.
    See Netr Khemayothin, Chiwit naiphon (Life of a General), (Bangkok, Kasembannakit, 1967), pp. 277–341.Google Scholar
  33. 52.
    See Thawee Bunyaket, Political Memoirs, in Jayanta Kumar Ray (ed.), Portraits of Thai Politics (New Delhi, Orient Longman, 1972), p. 81; Netr, Ngan taidin, pp. 38–39; and Haseman, The Thai Resistance Movement, p. 68.Google Scholar
  34. 54.
    Nicholas Tarling, ‘Atonement Before Absolution: British Policy Towards Thailand During World War II’, The Journal of the Siam Society (Bangkok), Vol. 66, pt. 1, January 1978, pp. 22–23.Google Scholar
  35. 56.
    Nicholas Tarling, ‘Rice and Reconciliation: The Anglo-Thai Peace Negotiations of 1945’, The Journal of the Siam Society (Bangkok), Vol. 66, pt. 2, July 1978, p. 66.Google Scholar
  36. 62.
    Nigel J. Brailey, Thailand and the Fall of Singapore: A Frustrated Asian Revolution (Boulder, Westview Press, 1986), p. 119.Google Scholar
  37. 63.
    Suchin Tantikun, Ratthaprahan phoso 2490 (The Coup d’Etat of 2490), (Bangkok, Social Science Association of Thailand Press, 1972), pp. 74–75; and Thak (ed.), Thai Politics, p. 503.Google Scholar
  38. 67.
    Likhit Dhiravegin, ‘Thailand Foreign Policy Determination’, The Journal of Social Sciences (Bangkok), Vol. XI, No. 4, October 1974, p. 48.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Anuson Chinvanno 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anuson Chinvanno

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations