The Decolonization of Africa
For the non-African Africa is the ambiguous continent. From paleolithic times onward the lower Nile valley has sustained human life. It has seen the coming and going of many great native empires. The first invaders intent on penetrating and colonizing Africa were Arabs whose rule and religion began to spread across the continent from the eighth century onward. From the seventeenth to the twentieth century, Africans fell increasingly under the sway of Europeans. In its long history267 Africa has fallen prey to the invader, the slave raider, tribal enmity, abject poverty, famine, and disease. Following the Second World War, Africa’s dream was to free itself of alien rule and exploitation (see Map XI). Gradually, the dream came true. By 1977 the last colonial European flag had been lowered; for Africa a new age had dawned; a great future was predicted.
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