External Pressure for Change in South and Southern Africa
It has become a cliche to suggest that international relations are undergoing paradigmatic shifts. And yet, no effort to comprehend contemporary affairs can divorce itself from the hard truth that comfortable assumptions about the world have been overturned by the events which began in Eastern Europe in the Autumn of 1989.
KeywordsManifold Europe Shipping Expense Posit
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- 1.This is literature drawn together in J.A. Kalley, Pressure on Pretoria: Sanctions, Boycotts and the Divestment/Disinvestment Issue, 1964–1988, Johannesburg: SAIIA Bibliographical Series, no 17, 1988, p. 299.Google Scholar
- 2.See, for example, D.J. Geldenhuys, Internationale Isolasie: Suid-Afrika in Vergelykende perspektief Johannesburg: Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit, 1985, p. 106.Google Scholar
- 3.In the post-war case, deepening international pressure compelled a relaxed General Smuts and a furtive Dr Malan to hide behind the close British link. The three adjectives are deliberately chosen, Smuts was comfortable with the British and clearly did not recognise that it was the very nearness of this link which may have cost him the 1948 election. For his part, Dr Malan patently understood the ambiguity — to use a euphemism — which his supporters felt towards the British in particular. The closeness of the links, however, is most interesting. The United Kingdom was both anxious about its colonial policy and fearful of antagonising the South African government, especially after 1948. Accordingly, London went to some lengths to protect South Africa in the international community. See J.E. Spence, The Strategic Significance of South Africa, London: Royal United Services Institution, 1970, pp. 10–11.Google Scholar
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- H. Adam, ‘eastern europe and South African Socialism: engaging Joe Slovo’, South Africa International, 21 (1), July 1990, pp. 27–35Google Scholar