Distribution, Emission and Control of Thermal Energy

  • George Hassan
Part of the Macmillan Building and Surveying Series book series (BASS)


The first application of central heating, where the source of heat is located some distance away from the area that is to be heated, is credited to the Lacedaemonians of Greece [5.1], who in 350 B.C. constructed a temple in Ephesus, in which hot gases, derived from burning lignacite, were passed through conduits built into the floor.


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  1. 5.1.
    Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1989.Google Scholar
  2. 5.2.
    Billington N.S. and Roberts B.M. Building Services Engineering: A Review of its Development, 1982. Pergamon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  3. 5.3.
    Diamant R.M.E. and McGarry J. Space and District Heating (Part 2), 1968. Iliffe, Guildford.Google Scholar
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    Dearborn Chemicals Ltd. Basic Principles of Water Treatment for Steam Boiler Systems, 1986. Widnes, Cheshire.Google Scholar
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    Wirsbo UK Ltd. Space Saving Space Heating, 1992. Crawley, West Sussex.Google Scholar
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    Opus. Building Services Design File, p. 47, 1991. (Heating and cooling systems, Envirafloor Ltd.)Google Scholar
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    BS 6896: 1987 Specification for installation of gas fired overhead radiant heaters for industrial and commercial heating (2nd and 3rd family gases). BSI, London.Google Scholar
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    Opus. Building Services Design File, p. 69, 1992. (Benson Heating Ltd.)Google Scholar
  9. 5.9.
    BS 3528: 1977 Specification for convection type space heaters operating with steam or hot water [AMD 5090, 1986, R]. BSI, London.Google Scholar
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    Martin P.L. and Oughton D.R Faber and Kell Heating and Air Conditioning of Buildings, 7th edition, 1989. Butterworth, London.Google Scholar
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    National Health Service Estates Guidance Note. ‘Safe’ hot water and surface temperatures, 1992. Department of Health.Google Scholar
  12. 5.12.
    Irving S. and Smith I. It’s in the air, CIBSE Journal, December 1992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© George Hassan 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Hassan
    • 1
  1. 1.Anglia Polytechnic UniversityUK

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