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Determining the Re-Sources

  • Bernard Benstock

Abstract

In the ‘Yawn’ chapter of Finnegans Wake, a heroic effort is under way to obtain some factual information. The method employed is recognisably catechistic, a series of interviews undertaken by the Four Old Men (‘Those four claymen clomb together to hold their sworn starchamber quiry’ — FW p. 475, 11. 18–19) of the buried body of Shaun/Yawn, resulting in a sequence of various voices responding to their questions. This quartet of ‘Shanators’ conducts its seance on a hill in County Meath under frustrating circumstances, especially when the Yawn voice is inexplicably replaced by that of Anna Livia Plurabelle, followed by an anonymous witness, then another, and then (in rapid succession) Issy, Kate and Earwicker himself. The claymen prove to be ineffectual and they too are supplanted — by ‘bright young chaps of the brandnew braintrust’ (FW, p. 529, 1. 5). Even when the reader feels confident in identifying the sources of the question asked and the answer given, the multiplicity of voices remains confusing and does little to clarify the ‘information’ obtained.

Keywords

Summer Solstice Sexual Infidelity Taboo Word Imply Reader Irish Language 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 6.
    C. H. Peake, James Joyce: The Citizen and the Artist ( Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 1977 ) p. 285.Google Scholar
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    Adams, James Joyce, p. 163; Burgess, Here Comes Everybody, p. 170; Richard Ellmann, Ulysses on the Liffey ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1972 ) p. 156.Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    Clive Hart, James Joyce’s Ulysses ( Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1968 ) p. 74.Google Scholar
  4. 11.
    Stuart Gilbert, James Joyce’s Ulysses (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1931) p. 345; Litz, ‘Ithaca’, pp. 393–4.Google Scholar
  5. 13.
    Letters of James Joyce vol. 1, ed. Stuart Gilbert (New York: Viking Press, 1957) p. 164.Google Scholar
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    Hugh Kenner, Dublin’s Joyce ( London: Chatto and Windus, 1955 ) p. 261.Google Scholar
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    Marilyn French, The Book as World: James Joyce’s Ulysses (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976) pp. 221, 227, 239.Google Scholar
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    Kenner, Joyce’s Voices (Berkeley, Cal.: University of California Press, 1978) pp. 96, 98.Google Scholar
  9. 25.
    S. L. Goldberg, The Classical Temper ( London: Chatto and Windus, 1963 ) p. 189.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Bernard Benstock 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard Benstock
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MiamiUSA

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