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How Western European Nuclear Policy Is Made: A Comparison

  • Harald Müller

Abstract

Decision-making is frequently used as an instrument of policy analysis.2 Decisions are the main product of the political system. Often they are legally binding: laws, regulations, treaties and budgetary allocations. At other times, they concern the establishment of new organisations, the treatment of staff and specific allocations to individuals or groups. Sometimes they are more programmatic guidelines which will help shape future decisions on specific policies.

Keywords

Nuclear Weapon Nuclear Export Foreign Ministry Export Control Export Policy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    For a useful insight into the epistemology and methodology of comparison see Gabriel A. Almond and George B. Powell, Comparative Politics: A Developmental Approach (Boston: Little, Brown, 1966), andGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander L. George, ‘Case Studies and Theory Development’, in Paul G. Lauren (ed.), Diplomatic History: New Approaches (New York: Free Press, 1979), andGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander L. George and Timothy J. McKeown, ‘Case Studies and Theories of Organizational Decisionmaking’, in Advances in Information Processing, vol. 2 (Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press, 1985).Google Scholar
  4. 2.
    A valuable overview of the various approaches is provided by Anthony McGres and M. J. Wilson (eds), Decision-Making. Approaches and Analysis (Manchester University Press, 1982).Google Scholar
  5. 3.
    This argument is taken from David A. Easton, A Systems Analysis of Political Life (New York: John Wiley, 1965).Google Scholar
  6. 4.
    For a general overview of the regime concept see Stephen D. Krasner, ‘Structural Causes and Regime Consequences: Regimes as Intervening Variables’, in idem (ed.), International Regimes (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984), pp. 1–22Google Scholar
  7. Discussions of the non-proliferation regime are Joseph S. Nye, ‘Maintaining a Nonproliferation Regime’, in International Organization, vol. 35, winter 1981Google Scholar
  8. K. Mottola, ‘Whither the NP Regime?’, in Current Research on Peace and Violence, vol. 4 (1981), no. 4, pp. 229–56Google Scholar
  9. Robert Boardman and James F. Keeley (eds), Nuclear Exports and World Politics: Policy and Regime (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1983)Google Scholar
  10. Benjamin Schiff, International Nuclear Technology Transfer: Dilemmas of Discrimination and Control (London: Croom Helm, 1984)Google Scholar
  11. Stanley Foundation, The United States and the Future of the Non-Proliferation Regime (New York: 1984)Google Scholar
  12. Roger K. Smith, ‘Explaining the Non-Proliferation Regime: Anomalies for Contemporary International Relations Theory’, in International Organization, vol. 41 (spring 1987), no. 2, pp. 253–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. David A. V. Fischer, The International Nonproliferation Regime 1987 (New York: United Nations, 1987).Google Scholar
  14. 5.
    Cf. George H. Quester, The Politics of Nonproliferation (Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973)Google Scholar
  15. Jozef Goldblat (ed.), Nonproliferation. The Why and Wherefore (London: Tayler and Francis, 1985)Google Scholar
  16. Harald Müller (ed.), A European Non-Proliferation Policy. Prospects and Problems (Oxford University Press, 1987)Google Scholar
  17. Mitchell Reiss, The Politics of Nuclear Proliferation (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988).Google Scholar
  18. 6.
    Hans-Günther Brauch (ed.), Decisionmaking for Arms Limitation. Assessment and Prospects (Cambridge, Mass: Ballinger, 1983).Google Scholar
  19. 8.
    Mans Lönnroth and William Walker, Nuclear Power Struggles: Industrial Competition and Proliferation Control (London: Allen & Unwin, 1983)Google Scholar
  20. William Walker, ‘The European Nuclear Industry in 1986’, in Harald Müller (ed.), A Survey of European Nuclear Policy. 1985–1987 (London: Macmillan Press, 1989).Google Scholar
  21. 9.
    Gregory Flynn and Hans Rattinger (eds), The Public and Atlantic Defense (London: Croom Helm, 1985)Google Scholar
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  23. 10.
    OECD/NEA, ‘The Regulation of Nuclear Trade. Nonproliferation, Supply, Safety’, vol. National Regulations (Paris: OECD, 1988).Google Scholar
  24. 11.
    Rodney W. Jones, Cesare Merlini, Joseph F. Pilat and William C. Potter (eds), The Nuclear Suppliers and Nonproliferation. International Policy Choices (Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books, 1985).Google Scholar
  25. 13.
    Cf. Morton Halperin, Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy (Washington, DC: Brookings, 1974).Google Scholar
  26. 14.
    For this brief overview I have drawn on earlier work, specifically Harald Müller, Consumer Energy Conservation Policies and Programs: A Comparative Analysis of Program Design and Implementation in Eight Western Countries (Berlin: International Institute for Environment and Society, CECP Technical Report Series, 1984), vol. II.Google Scholar
  27. 15.
    Edmundo Fujita, The prevention of geographical proliferation of nuclear weapons: nuclear weapons-free zones and zones of peace in the Southern hemisphere, Geneva (UNIDIR Research Paper 4) 1989Google Scholar
  28. R. B. Byers (ed.), The Denuclearisation of the Oceans (London/Sydney: Croom Helm, 1986).Google Scholar
  29. 16.
    This argument is made repeatedly and in great detail by K. Subrahmaniam, Nuclear Myths and Realities: India’s Dilemma (New Delhi: ABC Publishing, 1981).Google Scholar
  30. 17.
    Harald Müller, ‘The Vertical Proliferation Issue: The Europeans and Arms Control’, in idem (ed.), A Survey of European Nonproliferation Policy, 1985–1987 (London: Macmillan, 1989), pp. 51–66.Google Scholar
  31. 18.
    David Fischer and Harald Müller, ‘Non-Proliferation Beyond the 1985 Review’, Brussels (CEPS Papers 26) 1985, pp. 18–22.Google Scholar
  32. 19.
    Lawrence D. Scheinman, The IAEA and World Nuclear Order (Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 1987), pp. 218–22.Google Scholar
  33. 20.
    Cf. David Butler, ‘Electoral Systems’, in David Butler, Howard R. Penniman and Austin Ranney (eds), Democracy at the Polls. A Comparative Study of Competitive National Elections (Washington/London: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1981), pp. 7–26.Google Scholar
  34. 21.
    Cf. Peter J. Katzenstein (ed.), Between Power and Plenty. Foreign Economic Policies of Advanced Industrial States (Madison, WC: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978)Google Scholar
  35. Peter J. Katzenstein, Small States in World Markets. Industrial Policy in Europe (Ithaca, NY/London: Cornell University Press, 1985).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Harald Müller 1991

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  • Harald Müller

There are no affiliations available

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