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Introduction: Provincial Histories and the History of Pakistan

  • D. A. Low
Part of the Cambridge Commonwealth Series book series (CAMCOM)

Abstract

Upon the demise of the British Empire in South Asia in 1947–48, four separate countries became independent nation states: India and Pakistan in 1947, Burma and Ceylon in 1948.

Keywords

Muslim World United Province Province Leader Muslim Majority United Malay National Organization 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    D. A. Low, ed., Congress and the Raj. Facets of the Indian Struggle 1917–47 (London, 1977).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    For example, R. Symonds, The Making of Pakistan (London: 1950)Google Scholar
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  6. 3.
    For example, Aziz Ahmad, Islamic Modernisation in India and Pakistan 1857–1964 (London, 1957)Google Scholar
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  8. 4.
    On these issues see C. A. Bayly, Imperial Meridian. The British Empire and the World 1780–1830 (London, 1989), chs 1–2.Google Scholar
  9. 5.
    For India see especially F. Robinson, Separatism among Indian Muslims (Cambridge, 1974).Google Scholar
  10. Hobsbawm has emphasised how new most nations are: E. J. Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780. Programme, Myth, Reality (Cambridge, 1990).Google Scholar
  11. 6.
    For example, B. D. Metcalf, ‘Nationalist Muslims in British India: The Case of Hakim Ajmal Khan’, Modern Asian Studies, 19, 1, February 1985, pp. 1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  14. On Jinnah here and elsewhere see Sharif al Mujahid, Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah. Studies in Interpretation (Karachi, 1981)Google Scholar
  15. S. Wolpert, Jinnah of Pakistan (New York, 1984) (and see fn. 9 below).Google Scholar
  16. 7.
    D. Page, Prelude to Partition. The Indian Muslims and the Imperial System of Control 1920–1932 (Delhi, 1982).Google Scholar
  17. 8.
    For example, H. Malik, ed., Iqbal: Poet-Philosopher of Pakistan (Washington, 1963).Google Scholar
  18. 9.
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  19. 10.
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  20. 11.
    D. V. Verney, Three Civilisations, Two Cultures, One Country. Canada’s Political Traditions (Durham, 1986) canvasses the history of this and related matters.Google Scholar
  21. 12.
    On this and much else besides see P. Hardy, The Muslims of British India (Cambridge, 1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 14.
    See especially D. Gilmartin, Empire and Islam. Punjab and the Making of Pakistan (London, 1988).Google Scholar
  23. 15.
    S. Rittenberg, Ethnicity, Nationalism, and the Pakhtuns. The Independence Movement in India’s North-West Frontier Province (Durham, North Carolina, 1988).Google Scholar
  24. 16.
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  26. L. Ziring et al., Pakistan: The Long View (Durham, 1977)Google Scholar
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  28. 19.
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  29. 20.
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  30. 21.
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  31. 22.
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  32. 23.
    Rittenberg, Ethnicity, Nationalism and the Pakhtuns; E. Jansson, India, Pakistan or Pakhtunistan? The Nationalist Movements in the North-West Frontier Province, 1937–47 (Uppsala, 1981).Google Scholar
  33. 24.
    S. Sen, Muslim Politics in Bengal 1937–1947 (Delhi, 1976).Google Scholar
  34. 25.
    On this story and those of the other Muslim majority provinces see generally I. Talbot, Provincial Politics and the Pakistan Movement. The growth of the Muslim League in North-West and North-East India 1937–47 (Karachi, 1988).Google Scholar
  35. 26.
    A. Jalal, ‘Inheriting the Raj: Jinnah and the Governor-Generalship Issue’, Modern Asian Studies, 19, 1, February 1985, pp. 29–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 27.
    F. Shaikh, Community and Consensus in Islam. Muslim Representation in Colonial India, 1860–1947 (Cambridge, 1989).Google Scholar
  37. 29.
    It is difficult to encounter a relevant study which does not highlight this. For just one account see Akbar Ahmed’s Introduction to the conference volume he edited, Stress and Structure in Pakistan Society: The Politics of Ethnicity in the Post-Colonial State (Honolulu, 1990).Google Scholar
  38. 30.
    S. Bose, Agrarian Bengal Economy, Social Structure and Politics, 1919–1947 (Cambridge, 1986).Google Scholar
  39. 31.
    Imran Ali, The Punjab under Imperialism, 1885–1947 (Princeton, 1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 32.
    C. Dewey, ‘Some Consequences of the Military Expenditure in British India, The Case of the Upper Singh Sagar Doab, 1849–1947’, in C. Dewey, ed., Arrested Development in India. The Historical Dimension (Delhi, 1988), pp. 93–169.Google Scholar
  41. 33.
    P. H. M. van den Dungen, The Punjab Tradition (London, 1972).Google Scholar
  42. 34.
    Gilmartin, Empire and Islam, passim. On the Punjab story much more generally, see the extended account by I. Talbot, Punjab and the Raj 1849–1947 (Delhi, 1988).Google Scholar
  43. 35.
    S. Gopal, ed., Nehru. Selected Works, 7 (Delhi, 1975), p. 276.Google Scholar
  44. 37.
    I like to think that this endeavour may have been advanced by D. A. Low, ed., Soundings in Modern South Asian History (London, 1968).Google Scholar
  45. 38.
    This is particularly true of Bengal, see for example R. K. Ray, Social Conflict and Political Unrest in Bengal 1875–1927 (Delhi, 1984).Google Scholar
  46. 39.
    D. H. A. Kolff, Naukar, Rajput and Sepoy. The ethnohistory of the military labour market in Hindustan, 1450–1850 (Cambridge, 1990).Google Scholar
  47. 41.
    For example, A. Jalal, The State of Martial Rule. The origins of Pakistan’s political economy of defence (Cambridge, 1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. A. Low 1991

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  • D. A. Low

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