Pakistan’s Troubled Relations with the Soviet Union

  • Hafeez Malik


It is generally accepted that there exists an intimate relationship between the domestic and foreign policy of a state. In addition to the domestic political and social foundations of a state, the perception of external conditions also profoundly influence its foreign-policymakers. These external conditions do not remain immutably fixed; in fact, they vary at different historical periods. With changes in the material environment, perceptions are also transformed: the enemies of yesterday become friends of today, and current friends appear to change into enemies of tomorrow. Only a sense of national interest remains, which is also subjected to varied interpretations. These very obvious and simple principles of interstate relations quite aptly apply to Pakistan’s relations with the Soviet Union.


Prime Minister Foreign Policy Military Assistance Afghan Refugee Interim Government 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes and References

  1. 1.
    National Assembly of Pakistan, Parliamentary Debates, vol. I (26 March 1956) p. 76.Google Scholar
  2. 5.
    George McTurnan Kahin, The Afro-Asian Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, April 1955 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1956) p. 54.Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    Henry Kissinger, White House Years (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1979) pp. 895Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    Aide Mémoire presented by the Soviet Ambassador to the Prime Minister of Pakistan, 14 April 1958; R.K. Jain (ed.), Soviet South Asian Relations 1947–1978 (Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1979) vol. II, p. 10.Google Scholar
  5. 9.
    T.N. Kaul, Diplomacy in Peace and War. Recollection and Reflections (New Delhi: Vikas, 1979) pp. 12Google Scholar
  6. 10.
    Igor V. Khalevinski, USSR and Pakistan (Moscow: Glavnaja Redaktsija Vostchnoy Litratury, 1984) p. 20.Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    W.W. Rostow, Open Skies: Eisenhower’s Proposal of July 21, 1955 (Austin: University of Texas, 1982) pp. 62–3.Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    Michael R. Beschloss, May Day: Eisenhower, Khrushchev and the U-2 Affair (New York: Harper & Row, 1986) p. 256.Google Scholar
  9. 16.
    Agha Shahi, ‘Pakistan’s Relations with the United States’, in Hafeez Malik (ed.) Soviet—American Relations with Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987) p. 164.Google Scholar
  10. 21.
    Muhammad Ayub Khan, Friends, Not Masters (London: Oxford University Press, 1967) p. 174.Google Scholar
  11. 22.
    Altaf Gauhar, ‘Foreword’ to Asqhar Khan, The First Round (London: Islamic Information Service, Ltd., 1979) p. vi.Google Scholar
  12. 27.
    Pran Chopra, India’s Second Liberation (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974) p. 100.Google Scholar
  13. 28.
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, The Myth of Independence (London: Oxford University Press, 1969) p. 145.Google Scholar
  14. 29.
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Speeches and Statements, 1 July–30 September 1972 (Karachi: Govt. of Pakistan, 1972) p. 31.Google Scholar
  15. 36.
    Agha Shahi, ‘Pakistan Foreign Policy: A New Dimension’, Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, vol, XI, no. 3 (Spring 1988) p. 34.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Hafeez Malik 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hafeez Malik

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations