The striving of individuals and groups to lead an independent life within a society they regard as alien or hostile is an ancient phenomenon. One need only think of the early Christians under Roman rule; Jews in the ghetto or the shtetl of Eastern Europe; dissenting or non-conformist Protestants in 17th century England; Catholic or Buddhist monks in monasteries; Mennonites or Hutterites; communes in early 19th century America; the counter-culture of the 20th century. Sometimes these individuals and groups sought to remould the society of which they were an unwilling part; sometimes they tried to withdraw entirely from society and live their own life in communities isolated from the world around them.
KeywordsEurope Flare Assure Turkey Arena
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