Edward Bond’s Summer: “a voice from the working class”

  • Philip Roberts


In an unpublished interview given to Salvatore Maiorana in February 1981 (p. 142), Bond states: “It would be too presumptuous of me to say that I consider myself a voice of the working class but I do consider myself a voice from it....” The interview took place less than a month after the final draft of Summer was completed and at the same time as detailed notes for his new play, Human Cannon, began (although preliminary notes for the latter play exist from July 1979). There are notes, dated July 1979, for two plays, Restoration and Human Cannon. Bond decided to write Restoration first, but before turning his attention to the latter of the two plays, he embarked upon Summer. Notes for several plays often coexist in Bond’s papers, but the play in question, once begun in detail, proceeds to the virtual exclusion of all else, apart from occasional revisions. Thus, although Bond continued to modify Restoration in parts until October 1980, the sixth and final draft was completed in July. Early notes for Summer are extant for April 1980, but detailed notes commence in August. Before picking up Human Cannon again, although he worked on the play a little from February 1981, Bond directed Restoration at the Royal Court (opened July 1981) and also Summer at the National Theatre (opened January 1982). Once Summer opened, Human Cannon came into focus again and was substantially completed by the end of July 1982.


Dead Figure Final Draft Detailed Note National Theatre Khmer Rouge 
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Copyright information

© Hersh Zeifman and Cynthia Zimmerman 1993

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  • Philip Roberts

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