The Technology and Costs of Deposits
This topic is a broad one and the discussion will be limited to mammals, primarily mice and farm animals. Clearly, the world of biotechnology is moving rapidly in various sectors of plant and animal biotechnology (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 1986; US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1987; Jaenisch, 1988). The benefits to agriculture of genetic engineering techniques could be enormous in terms of increasing the quantity and quality of food (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 1986). The world population will probably double in the next 40 years. If this happens, the food required during that time will equal all the food produced in human history. Animal products will continue to be an important part of a nutritious and appetizing diet. Animals utilizing forages compete less with humans for plant sources in the diet. They can indirectly harvest a virtually inexhaustible source of energy—sunlight—acting through photosynthesis, plant growth, and animal conversion to produce high quality proteins.
KeywordsEmbryo Transfer Patent Application Transgenic Animal Legal Issue Germ Plasm
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Adler, R. G. (1988) Controlling the Applications of Biotechnology: A Critical Analysis of the Proposed Moratorium on Animal Patenting. Harvard J. Law Technol.
: 1–61.Google Scholar
Armstrong, D. T. and G. Evans (1983) Factors Influencing Success of Embryo Transfer in Sheep and Goats. Theriogenology
: 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ashwood-Smith, M. J. (1986) The Cryopreservation of Human Embryos. Human Reprod.
: 319–32.Google Scholar
Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (1986) Genetic Engineering in Food and Agriculture
. Report no. 110.Google Scholar
Deanesly, R. (1954) Spermatogenesis and Endocrine Activity in Grafts of Frozen and Thawed Rat Testis. J. Endocrinol.
: 201–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ethics Committee, American Fertility Association (1986) Ethical Considerations of the New Reproductive Technologies. J. Fert.
(Suppl.): 1S–94S.Google Scholar
Foote, R. H. (1987) In vitro
Fertilization and Embryo Transfer in Domestic Animals: Applications in Animals and Implications for Humans. J. In Vitro Fert. Embryo Transfer
: 73–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glenister, P. H. and M. F. Lyon (1986) Long-Term Storage of Eight-Cell Mouse Embryos at −196°C. J. In Vitro Fertil. Embryo Transer
: 20–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glenister, P. H., M. J. Wood, C. Kirby, and D. G. Whittingham (1987) The Incidence of Chromosome Anomalies in First-Cleavage Mouse Embryos Obtained from Frozen-Thawed Oocytes Fertilized in vitro. Gamete Res.
: 205–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jaenisch, R. (1988) Transgenic Animals. Science
: 1468–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leibo, S. P. (1986) Cryobiology: Preservation of Mammalian Embryos. In: Genetic Engineering of Animals
. Plenum Pub. Press, New York, pp. 251–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massip, A., P. Van Der Zwalmen, and F. Ectors (1987) Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Cattle Embryos. Theriogenology
: 69–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazur, P. and U. Schneider (1986) Osmotic Responses of Preimplantation Mouse and Bovine Embryos and their Cryobiological Implications. Cell Biophys.
: 259–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mobraaten, L. E. (1986) Mouse Embryo Cryobanking. J. In Vitro Fert. Embryo Transfer
: 28–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mobraaten, L. E. and D. W. Bailey (1987) Effect of Freezing Mouse Embryos on Mutation Rate. Cryobiology
: 586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parkes, A. S. (1956) Survival Time of Ovarian Homografts in Two Strains of Rats. J. Endocrinol.
: 201–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prather, R. S., M. F. Spire, and R. R. Schalles (1987) Evaluation of Cryopreservation Techniques for Bovine Embryos. Theriogenology
: 195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raines, L. J. (1988) The Mouse that Roared. Iss. in Sci. Technol.
(summer): 64–8.Google Scholar
Schneider, U. (1986) Cryobiological Principles of Embryo Freezing. J. In Vitro Fert. Embryo Transfer
: 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1987) Technologies to Maintain Biological Diversity
. OTA-F-330. Washington, DC, pp. 137–65.Google Scholar
— (1984) Intellectual Property Law. In: Commercial Biotechnology: An International Analysis
. OTA-BA-218. Washington DC, pp. 383–406.Google Scholar
Van Horn, C. (1987) Recent Developments in the Patenting of Biotechnology in the United States. Symposium on the Protection of Biotechnological Inventions
. Cornell University.Google Scholar
Whittingham, D. G., S. P. Leibo, and P. Mazur (1972) Survival of Mouse Embryos Frozen to −196°C and −269°C. Science
: 414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whittingham, D. G. and M. Wood (1984) Bibliography on Low Temperature Storage of Mammalian Embryos. Biblio. Reprod.
(5): A1–A112.Google Scholar
© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1989