The Technology and Costs of Deposits

  • Robert H. Foote


This topic is a broad one and the discussion will be limited to mammals, primarily mice and farm animals. Clearly, the world of biotechnology is moving rapidly in various sectors of plant and animal biotechnology (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 1986; US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1987; Jaenisch, 1988). The benefits to agriculture of genetic engineering techniques could be enormous in terms of increasing the quantity and quality of food (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 1986). The world population will probably double in the next 40 years. If this happens, the food required during that time will equal all the food produced in human history. Animal products will continue to be an important part of a nutritious and appetizing diet. Animals utilizing forages compete less with humans for plant sources in the diet. They can indirectly harvest a virtually inexhaustible source of energy—sunlight—acting through photosynthesis, plant growth, and animal conversion to produce high quality proteins.


Embryo Transfer Patent Application Transgenic Animal Legal Issue Germ Plasm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adler, R. G. (1988) Controlling the Applications of Biotechnology: A Critical Analysis of the Proposed Moratorium on Animal Patenting. Harvard J. Law Technol., 1: 1–61.Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong, D. T. and G. Evans (1983) Factors Influencing Success of Embryo Transfer in Sheep and Goats. Theriogenology, 19: 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashwood-Smith, M. J. (1986) The Cryopreservation of Human Embryos. Human Reprod., 1: 319–32.Google Scholar
  4. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (1986) Genetic Engineering in Food and Agriculture. Report no. 110.Google Scholar
  5. Deanesly, R. (1954) Spermatogenesis and Endocrine Activity in Grafts of Frozen and Thawed Rat Testis. J. Endocrinol., 11: 201–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ethics Committee, American Fertility Association (1986) Ethical Considerations of the New Reproductive Technologies. J. Fert., 46 (Suppl.): 1S–94S.Google Scholar
  7. Foote, R. H. (1987) In vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer in Domestic Animals: Applications in Animals and Implications for Humans. J. In Vitro Fert. Embryo Transfer, 4: 73–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Glenister, P. H. and M. F. Lyon (1986) Long-Term Storage of Eight-Cell Mouse Embryos at −196°C. J. In Vitro Fertil. Embryo Transer, 3: 20–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Glenister, P. H., M. J. Wood, C. Kirby, and D. G. Whittingham (1987) The Incidence of Chromosome Anomalies in First-Cleavage Mouse Embryos Obtained from Frozen-Thawed Oocytes Fertilized in vitro. Gamete Res., 16: 205–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jaenisch, R. (1988) Transgenic Animals. Science, 240: 1468–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Leibo, S. P. (1986) Cryobiology: Preservation of Mammalian Embryos. In: Genetic Engineering of Animals. Plenum Pub. Press, New York, pp. 251–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Massip, A., P. Van Der Zwalmen, and F. Ectors (1987) Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Cattle Embryos. Theriogenology, 27: 69–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mazur, P. and U. Schneider (1986) Osmotic Responses of Preimplantation Mouse and Bovine Embryos and their Cryobiological Implications. Cell Biophys., 8: 259–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mobraaten, L. E. (1986) Mouse Embryo Cryobanking. J. In Vitro Fert. Embryo Transfer, 3: 28–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mobraaten, L. E. and D. W. Bailey (1987) Effect of Freezing Mouse Embryos on Mutation Rate. Cryobiology, 24: 586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Parkes, A. S. (1956) Survival Time of Ovarian Homografts in Two Strains of Rats. J. Endocrinol., 13: 201–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Prather, R. S., M. F. Spire, and R. R. Schalles (1987) Evaluation of Cryopreservation Techniques for Bovine Embryos. Theriogenology, 28: 195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Raines, L. J. (1988) The Mouse that Roared. Iss. in Sci. Technol., 70 (summer): 64–8.Google Scholar
  19. Schneider, U. (1986) Cryobiological Principles of Embryo Freezing. J. In Vitro Fert. Embryo Transfer, 3: 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1987) Technologies to Maintain Biological Diversity. OTA-F-330. Washington, DC, pp. 137–65.Google Scholar
  21. — (1984) Intellectual Property Law. In: Commercial Biotechnology: An International Analysis. OTA-BA-218. Washington DC, pp. 383–406.Google Scholar
  22. Van Horn, C. (1987) Recent Developments in the Patenting of Biotechnology in the United States. Symposium on the Protection of Biotechnological Inventions. Cornell University.Google Scholar
  23. Whittingham, D. G., S. P. Leibo, and P. Mazur (1972) Survival of Mouse Embryos Frozen to −196°C and −269°C. Science, 178: 414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Whittingham, D. G. and M. Wood (1984) Bibliography on Low Temperature Storage of Mammalian Embryos. Biblio. Reprod., 43(5): A1–A112.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert H. Foote

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations