The New Pakistan: Doctrine of Bilateralism and the Nuclear Option

  • Hafeez Malik


After the loss of East Pakistan to the Indian forces, Pakistan was not merely a defeated country; it was a thoroughly demoralized state, whose population for the first time lost faith in its military’s defensive capability. Pakistanis also lost a sense of national direction, and confidence in their allies. In this atmosphere of crisis of confidence, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto assumed Pakistan’s presidency on 20 December 1971, since his Pakistan Peoples’ Party (PPP) had won the majority of West Pakistan’s share of seats in the National Assembly. Pakistan was no longer a two-winged anomaly; it was now compact geographically and, despite ethnic diversity, peoples of the four provinces, Azad Kashmir, and the Northern Areas had more in common with each other than with 1000-miles away East Pakistan.


Foreign Policy United Arab Emirate Nuclear Weapon Bilateral Relation Bilateral Negotiation 
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Copyright information

© Hafeez Malik 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hafeez Malik
    • 1
  1. 1.Villanova UniversityUSA

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