The ‘Think Test’: A Mental Stress Test for Unmasking Hyperventilation in Cardiovascular Disorders
Cardiovascular order and stability can be undermined by hypocapnia and alkalosis, particularly where the levels are unsteady, because their effects include increased arousal, autonomic imbalance with sympathetic dominance, potassium loss, and a rise of intracellular ionised calcium. The morbid effects can include loss of left ventricular compliance with reduction of the threshold for angina pectoris, right ventricular ectopy, supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmia, and cardiac arrest, and, through thromboxane A2, the stimulation of platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction.
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