Aetiology, Classification and Clinical Characteristics of Esotropia in Infancy

  • Brian Harcourt
Part of the Wenner-Gren Center International Symposium Series book series (WGS)


Normal oculomotor function depends basically upon mechanisms which control ocular versions and vergences. Failure of normal versions is manifest clinically in gaze palsies; failure of appropriate vergences may give rise to non-paralytic strabismus. Failures of either or both may cause nystagmus. Even if the supranuclear systems and the ocular muscles develop normally, incomitant strabismus will ensue if there are abnormalities in ocular motor nerve functions or mechanical defects limiting ocular rotations. In considering the relationship between the development of oculomotor control and the incidence of strabismus, particular attention must therefore be concentrated on the vergence mechanisms and on the developmental factors which can cause paralytic strabismus of neurogenic or mechanical origin.


Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy Sixth Nerve Palsy Congenital Nystagmus Convergent Strabismus Binocular Single Vision 
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© The Wenner-Gren Center 1988

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  • Brian Harcourt

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