Economic and Social Development and Demographic Changes in Hungary

  • Rudolf Andorka
Part of the International Economic Association Series book series (IEA)


Applying the definition of Oshima (1986), Hungary entered the agro-industrial transition in the last decades of the nineteenth century and completed it in the 1970s. The share of employment in agriculture was nearly three-quarters of the labour force in 1870 and declined to one-quarter in 1970. All other indicators, as shown in Table 2.1, demonstrate that around 1900 Hungary was a very backward and poor country, struggling with problems similar to those of developing economies today. It is now entering the next transition, with employment in services beginning to increase at the expense of employment in industry and, in parallel, the problems typical of advanced societies appear. In the same period of about one hundred years, Hungary underwent demographic transition. The natural growth rate reached its peak of 15 per cent in 1884. At present the growth rate is essentially zero, or even below replacement level.


Agricultural Worker Land Reform Social Indicator Research Large Estate Agricultural Population 
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Copyright information

© International Economic Association 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rudolf Andorka
    • 1
  1. 1.University Of Economic ScienceBudapestUK

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