Determinants of Fertility in Wild Gorillas and Other Primates

  • Kelly J. Stewart
  • Alexander H. Harcourt
  • D. P. Watts
Part of the Studies in Biology, Economy and Society book series (SBES)

Abstract

We see three main ways in which knowledge about the determinants of fertility in nonhuman primates is useful to an understanding of human fertility. First, we believe that it makes a difference to the perspective with which the human data are viewed if it is known that similar effects are, or are not, found in other primate species. Secondly, if primates share many features of reproduction with humans, then they may be used as experimental or conceptual models, with the great advantage that despite their social complexity, they lack the complications of human cultural influences. Thirdly, the broad perspective supplied by interspecific comparison may suggest possible influences on fertility that have not been considered in humans.

Keywords

Prolactin Kelly Peru Mist Nipple 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott, D.H., Keverne, E.B., Moore, G.E. and Yodyingyuad, U. (1986) ‘Social Suppression of Reproduction in Subordinate Talapoin Monkeys, Miopithecus talapoin’., in J.G. Else and P.C. Lee (eds), Primate Ontogeny, Cognition and Social Behav. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  2. Altmann, J. (1974) ‘Observational Study of Behaviour: Sampling Methods, Behav., vol. 49, pp. 227–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altmann, J. (1980) Baboon Mothers and Inf. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  4. Altmann, J., Altmann, S. and Hausfater, G. (1978) ‘Primate Infant’s Effects on Mother’s Future Reproduction’, Sci., vol. 201, pp. 1028–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ardito, G. (1976) ‘Check-list of the Data on the Gestation Length of Primates, Journal of Human Evolu., vol. 5, pp. 213–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bongaarts, J. (1980) ‘Does Malnutrition Affect Fecundity? A Summary of Evidence’, Sci., vol. 208, pp. 564–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowman, L.A., Dilley, S.R. and Keverne, E.B. (1978) ‘Suppression of Oestrogen-induced LH Surges by Social Subordination in Talapoin Monkeys, Na., vol. 275, pp. 56–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheney, D.L., Seyfarth, R.M., Andelman, S.J. and Lee, P.C. (1986) ‘Reproductive Success in Vervet Monkeys’, in T.H. Clutton-Brock (ed.) Reproductive Suc. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). (In press).Google Scholar
  9. Clutton-Brock, T.H., Guinness, F.E. and Albon, S.D. (1982) Red Deer. Behaviour and Ecology of Two S. (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).Google Scholar
  10. Crockett, C. and Sekulic, R. (1984) ‘Infanticide in Red Howler Monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)’., in G. Hausfater and S. Blaffer Hrdy (eds), Infanti. (New York: Aldine Publishing Company).Google Scholar
  11. Dixson, A.F. (1981) The Natural History of the Gor. (London: Weidenfeld).Google Scholar
  12. Drickamer, L.C. (1974) ‘A Ten-year Summary of Reproductive Data for Free-ranging Macacca mulatta’, Folia primatolo., vol. 21, pp. 61–80.Google Scholar
  13. Dunbar, R.I.M. (1980) ‘Determinants and Evolutionary Consequences of Dominance among Female Gelada Baboons’, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobio., vol. 7, pp. 253–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fairbanks, L.A. and McGuire, M.T. (1984) ‘Determinants of Fecundity and Reproductive Success in Captive Vervet Monkeys’, American Journal of Primato., vol. 7, pp. 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fossey, D. (1983) Gorillas in the. (London: Hodder & Stoughton).Google Scholar
  16. Fossey, D. (1984) ‘Infanticide in Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla berin. with Comparative Notes on Chimpanzees’, in G. Hausfater and S. Blaffer Hrdy (eds), Infanti. (New York: Aldine Publishing Company).Google Scholar
  17. French, F.E., Abbott, D.H. and Snowdon, C.T. (1984) ‘The Effect of Social Environment on Oestrogen Excretion, Scent Marking and Sociosexual Behaviour in Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus)’, American Journal of Primato., vol. 6, pp. 155–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frisch, R.E. and McArthur, J.W. (1974) ‘Menstrual Cycles: Fatness as a Determinant of Minimum Weight for Height Necessary for their Maintenance or Onset’, Sci., vol. 185, pp. 949–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garber, P.A., Moya, L. and Malaga, C. (1984) ‘A Preliminary Field Study of the Moustached Tamarin Monkey (Saguinus mys. in Northeastern Peru: Questions Concerned with the Evolution of a Communal Breeding System’, Folia Primatolo., vol. 42, pp. 17–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goodall, J. (1983) ‘Population Dynamics During a 15-year Period in One Community of Free-living Chimpanzees in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania’, Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychol., vol. 61, pp. 1–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gross, B.A. and Eastman, C.J. (1985) ‘Prolactin and the Return of Ovulation in Breast-feeding Women’, Journal of Biosocial Science, Supple., vol. 9, pp. 25–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harcourt, A.H. and Stewart, K.J. (1987) ‘How Does Help in Contests Influence Dominance Status in Primates?: Hints from Gorillas’, Animal Behav., vol. 35, pp. 182–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harcourt, A.H., Fossey, D., Stewart, K.J. and Watts, D.P. (1980) ‘Reproduction in Wild Gorillas and Some Comparisons with Chimpanzees’, Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Supple., vol. 28, pp. 59–70.Google Scholar
  24. Harcourt, A.H., Fossey, D. and Sabater Pi, J. (1981) ‘Demography of Gorilla gor.’, Journal of Zoology, Lo., vol. 195, pp. 215–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hinde, R.A. (1974) Biological Bases of Human Social Behav. (London: McGraw-Hill Book Company).Google Scholar
  26. Hrdy, S.B. (1979) ‘Infanticide among Animals: A Review, Classification, and Examination of the Implications for the Reproductive Strategies of Females’, Ethology and Sociobio., vol. 1, pp. 13–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Knodel, J. (1977) ‘Breast-feeding and Population Growth’, Sci., vol. 198, pp. 1111–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Konner, M. and Worthman, C. (1980) ‘Nursing Frequency, Gonadal Function, and Birth Spacing Among !Kung Hunter-Gatherers’, Sci., vol. 207, pp. 788–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee, P.C. (1986) ‘Environmental Influences on Development: Play, Weaning and Social Structure’, in J.G. Else and P.C. Lee (eds), Primate Ontogeny, Cognition and Social Behav. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  30. Mori, A. (1979) ‘Analysis of Population Changes by Measurements of Body Weight in the Koshima Troop of Japanese Monkeys’, Prim., vol. 20, pp. 371–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Prentice, A.M., Paul, A.A., Prentice, A., Black, A.E., Cole, T.J. and Whitehead, R.G. (1985) ‘Cross-cultural Differences in Lactational Performance. Paper presented at: International Workshop on Maternal Environmental Factors in Human Lactation, Oaxaca, New Mexico.Google Scholar
  32. Rowell, T.H. (1970) ‘Baboon Menstrual Cycles Affected by Social Environment’, Journal of Reproduction and Ferti., vol. 21, pp. 133–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sadleir, R.M.F.S. (1969) The Ecology of Reproduction in Wild and Domestic Mam. (London: Methuen).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Short, R.V. (1984) ‘Breast Feeding’, Scientific Amer., vol. 250, pp. 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stewart, K.J. (1977) ‘The Birth of a Wild Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei)’, Prim., vol. 18, pp. 965–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stewart, K.J. (1981) Social Development of Wild Mountain Gorillas. PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  37. Stewart, K.J. and Harcourt, A.H. (1986) ‘Gorillas: Variation in Female Relationships’, in B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth and R.W. Wrangham (eds), Primate Socie. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). (In press).Google Scholar
  38. Sugiyama, Y. and Ohsawa, H. (1982) ‘Population Dynamics of Japanese Monkeys with Special Reference to the Effect of Artificial Feeding’, Folia Primatolo., vol. 39, pp. 238–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Trivers, R.L. (1972) ‘Parental Investment and Sexual Selection’, in B. Campbell (ed.), Sexual Selection and the Descent of. (London: Heinemann).Google Scholar
  40. Tutin, C.E.G. (1980) ‘Reproductive Behaviour of Wild Chimpanzees in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania’, Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Supple., vol. 28, pp. 43–57.Google Scholar
  41. Vedder, A. (1984) ‘Movement Patterns of a Group of Free-ranging Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla berin. and Their Relation to Food Availability’, American Journal of Primato., vol. 7 pp. 73–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weber, A.W. and Vedder, A. (1983) ‘Population Dynamics of the Virunga Gorillas: 1959–1978’, Biological Conserva., vol. 26, pp. 341–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Whitten, P.L. (1983) ‘Diet and Dominance among Female Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)’, American Journal of Primato., vol. 5, pp. 139–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wilson, M.E., Gordon, T.P. and Bernstein, I.S. (1978) ‘Timing of Births and Reproductive Success in Rhesus Monkey Social Groups’, Journal of Medical Primato., vol. 7, pp. 202–12.Google Scholar
  45. Wood, J.W., Lai, D., Johnson, P.L., Campbell, K.L. and Maslar, I.A. (1985) ‘Lactation and Birth Spacing in Highland New Guinea’, Journal of Biosocial Science, Supple., vol. 9, pp. 159–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wrangham, R.M. (1979) ‘On the Evolution of Ape Social Systems’, Social Science Informa., vol. 18, pp. 335–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Eugenics Society 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelly J. Stewart
  • Alexander H. Harcourt
  • D. P. Watts

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations