Yugoslavia: A Question Mark for NATO and the Warsaw Pact

  • Ivo Paparela


The Socialist Federal Republic of South Slavs (Yugoslavia) lies at the very heart of the Balkan area. It has common borders with all the Warsaw Pact’s southern tier countries, with two (Italy and Greece) out of the three NATO southern flank countries, with one neutral (Austria) and one isolated country (Albania).


Armed Force Territorial Defence Civil Defence General Staff Secret Police 
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  1. 2.
    Nin, Belgrade, 17 September 1985, p. 11, and Defence Minister Admiral Branko Mamula: Savremeni Svijet I Nasa Obrana (Belgrade: Viz, 1985) p. 167. Admiral Mamula’s book hereafter will be referred to as Mamula.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    KNOJ and PPK — the units’ main purpose has been to terrorise the population and to establish the Communist regime. On PPK see Danas 7 May 1986. About KNOJ see V. Antic, ‘Aktivnosti KNOJ-a etc’ in Vojno Delo, April 1985. But the YPA has also been used against peasants when they refused to join Kolhuze in 1949.Google Scholar
  3. 16.
    The author writes ‘Serbian Military Science’ because Serbs are, by and large, the dominant factor in the Armed Forces of the Federation and because practically all so-called Yugoslavian military literature is written in the Serbian language. Scientifically speaking (from the point of view of linguistics as a science), there is no Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian language. Even the Constitution (1974) of the Republic of Croatia says that the official language in Croatia is the ‘Croatian Literary language called, sometimes, Serbo-Croatian’. The term ‘Serbo-Croate’ is used for political reasons. See Dr. Brako Franolic, A Short History of the Croatian Literary Language (London 1982). The other nationalities cannot reach influential functions within the Armed Forces, unless they accept the Serbian language and the Serbian socio-political approach to the internal problems of Yugoslavia.Google Scholar
  4. 18.
    Rear Admiral Ljubo Mraović ‘Prilog Razmatranju Politicke Strategije’ in Vojno Delo, June 1985. See also Mamula, op cit. Google Scholar
  5. 19.
    All authors, including Mraović, Mamula and above all Hlaic are very explicit on this point. See Hlaic, ‘Opcenarodna Obrana’ etc. in Narodna Armija 28 December 1980. This article has been written for the ‘ideological and political education of the officers of the Armed Forces’. This is a fundamental article, and will subsequently be referred to as Hlaic.Google Scholar
  6. 36.
    About women’s military service see the excellent article by Colonel Dr R. Vukosvljević, ‘Factors that must be taken into consideration’ in Vojno Delo, March 1986.Google Scholar
  7. 39.
    B. Mamula ‘Nezamjenliv Kurs Yugoslavenstva’ in Vojno Delo, April 1986.Google Scholar
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    Major-General Simeon Buncic, ‘Nationalizam, etc’ in Vojno Delo, January 1986.Google Scholar
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    See Colonel-General V. Knezevic, ‘Odnosi U Rukovodenju i Komandovanju TO’ in Vojno Delo, June 1985.Google Scholar
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    See M. Culic, ‘Prepotent guardians of Self-Defence’ in Danas, 6 October 1987, p. 24.Google Scholar
  11. 55.
    See A. Vojinović ‘Specidjalci, etc., in Start, 27 June 1987, about the ‘Special Unit’ of the Croatian Ministry of Interior.Google Scholar
  12. 56.
    Z. Petrović, ‘Jugoslavenska Znanstvena Policija’ in Start, 16 May 1987, about the ‘Security Institute’.Google Scholar
  13. 59.
    See V. Col. Vucinić Mihaylo, ‘Ograniceni Nukleani Rat’ in Vojna Delo, February 1986.Google Scholar
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    See Colonel-General Savo Drljević ‘Le rôle des facteurs, etc.’ in La conception Yougoslave, etc. (Medjunarodna Politika, Belgrade, 1970) and also Mamula, op cit, pp. 137, 158.Google Scholar
  15. 62.
    See Major-General M. Djordjević, ‘Protivhelikoptersa Borba’ in Vojno Delo, June 1986.Google Scholar
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    See Major-General Ilija Nikezic, ‘Znacaj I Problemi Borbe Protiv Operativno-Strategijskih Vazdusnih Desanta, etc.’ in Vojno Delo, May 1986.Google Scholar
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    See B. Mamula, Navies at High and Narrow Seas (VIZ Belgrade, 1978). This seems to be a basic book of Yugoslavian naval science for non-professional readers.Google Scholar
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  20. 66.
    Lieutenant-Commander S. Preradović, ‘Pogledi Na, etc.’ in Vojno Delo, June 1985.Google Scholar
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    Commander Bosko Antic, ‘Mesto i Vloga Recne Ratne Flotile, etc.’ in Vojno Delo, June 1985.Google Scholar
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    Lieutenant-General Jovo Winković ‘O Nekum Karakterismkama Operacija na PZT’ in Vojno Delo, January 1986.Google Scholar
  24. 73.
    See Colonel M. Sekulic, ‘Odnosi Komandi Jna I Stabova TO u ZBD’ in Vojno Delo, June 1986.Google Scholar
  25. 82.
    Major General Nikola Cubra: ‘Stanje i Pravci Razvoja Vojne Ekonomike’, etc. in Vojno Delo, March 1986.Google Scholar
  26. 83.
    See Major General Nikola Cubra: ‘Postignuti Rezultati i Predstojeci Zadaci’ etc. in Vojno Delo, March 1985.Google Scholar
  27. 86.
    See Lazanski, ‘Made in Yugoslavia’ in Danas, 19 August 1986.Google Scholar
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    See Lazanski, ‘Technoloski skok u 21 st’ in Danas, 14 February 1984.Google Scholar
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    See M. Djidara, ‘La situation internationale de la Yougoslavie’ in Le Quotidien Juridique (Paris) 34, 35, 36 of 21, 24, 26 March 1987.Google Scholar
  30. 105.
    On the genocide of the Albanians see V. Dedier, Novi Prilozi Az Biografiju J.B. Tito F. II (Liburmija Rijcke, 1981) pp. 588–91. Dedier says that the quasi-genocide situation continued after 1945, until 1966. See also Pedro Ramet, ‘Yugoslavia and the threat of international and external discontents’, Orbis, Spring 1984.Google Scholar
  31. 116.
    General N. Pejnovic, Istorijska Svests, etc.’ in Vojno Delo, May 1986.Google Scholar

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© Royal United Services Institute 1989

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  • Ivo Paparela

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