Zhou Enlai, Jawaharlal Nehru and Estranged ‘Afro — Asian Unity’

  • Ronald C. Keith


Even after the promotion of Chen Yi as Foreign Minister, Zhou Enlai continued to assume responsibility for Asian affairs. Zhou paid special attention to India, as Sino-Indian relations were pivotal to the application of the united front strategy of the 1950s which divided the world into the ‘socialist camp’, the ‘imperialist camp’ and an intermediate camp of national independence and ‘neutralism’.


Foreign Policy Chinese Government Foreign Minister Indian Government Peaceful Coexistence 
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Notes and References

  1. 2.
    Jawaharlal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru’s Speeches 1949–1953, vol. 2 (Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, 1954) p. 139.Google Scholar
  2. 5.
    Jawaharlal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru’s Speeches, 1953–1957, vol. 3 (Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, 1958), p. 300.Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    For example, see Yaacov Vertzberger, Misperceptions in Foreign Policy-making: The Sino-Indian Conflict, 1959–1962 (Boulder: West-view Press , 1984) p. 211.Google Scholar
  4. 9.
    Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister Nehru on Sino-Indian Relations, vol. I, Indian Parliament, part V (New Delhi: Ministry of External Affairs, 1962) p. 93.Google Scholar
  5. 10.
    Refer, for example, to Escott Reid, Envoy to Nehru (Oxford & Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1981) pp. 21–3Google Scholar
  6. 13.
    James Reston in The New York Times, Report from Red China (New York: Avon Publishers, 1972) p. 96.Google Scholar
  7. 18.
    Subimal Dutt, With Nehru in the Foreign Office (Calcutta: Minerva Associates, 1977) p. 87.Google Scholar
  8. 27.
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  9. 29.
    Allen S. Whiting, The Chinese Calculus of Deterrence (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1975) p. 18.Google Scholar
  10. 38.
    Percy and Lucy Fang, Zhou Enlai — A Profile, (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1986) p. 122.Google Scholar
  11. 50.
    Melvin Gurtov and Byong-Moo Hwang, China Under Threat. The Politics of Strategy and Diplomacy (Baltimore & London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980) p. 119.Google Scholar
  12. 51.
    Dick Wilson, Zhou Enlai: A Biography (New York: Viking Penguin, 1984) p. 224.Google Scholar
  13. 55.
    Edgar Snow, Red China Today, rev. and updated (New York: Random House, 1970) p. 564.Google Scholar
  14. 70.
    Zhou Enlai, Premier Chou En-lai’s Letter to the Leaders of Asian and African Countries on the Sino-Indian Boundary Question (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1974) p. 21.Google Scholar
  15. 76.
    Strobe Talbott (ed.) (intro. by Edward Crankshaw & Jerrold Schecter), Khrushchev Remembers (Boston & Toronto: Little, Brown & Co., 1974) p. 307.Google Scholar
  16. 92.
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  17. 101.
    Zhou Enlai et al. Afro-Asian Solidarity Against Imperialism (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1964) pp. 20Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ronald C. Keith 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald C. Keith
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CalgaryCanada

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