It will be recalled that before and after most reaction stages, separation steps are necessary. Also certain processes have no reaction stages and are just a series of physical unit operations, for example, milk processing or natural gas treatment. The raw material may need purifying and with regard to the Case Studies (CS) the following are important examples: for CS1, filtration of molten sulphur and drying of the combustion air; for CS2, removal of sulphurous compounds from the feed to the primary reformers; for CS3, air purification is often important; and for CS4, water and silt, which are produced simultaneously with the oil and gas, are removed from the hydrocarbons as soon as possible.
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