Do Third World Countries Benefit from Countertrade?

  • Frances Stewart
  • Harsha V. Singh


In recent years there has been a rapid expansion of unorthodox methods of arranging and financing trade, especially in trade with or between Third World countries. The phenomenon is known as countertrade and includes all exchanges of goods and services between nations, which do not consist of a straightforward sale of goods for internationally convertible money, but involve an exchange of goods for goods, or goods for a combination of goods and money, or other unorthodox methods of payment. Traditionally, of course, the socialist countries have accounted for a major share of bilateral deals in world trade. The new phenomenon is the extension of countertrade to the rest of the world. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, for example, it became pervasive in the oil market, as well as in arms deals. In recent years, a number of developing countries — including Nigeria, Malaysia, Pakistan and Indonesia — have explicitly adopted countertrade as an important element in their trading strategies.


Exchange Rate World Trade Real Exchange Rate World Country Market Transaction 
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Copyright information

© Sidney Dell 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frances Stewart
  • Harsha V. Singh

There are no affiliations available

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