For me, the first and most striking fact about the four-note figure that opens the opera Lulu (Example 1) is the important role that the same figure plays in certain works by Béla Bartók.
KeywordsBasic Cell Symmetrical Relation Tonal Music Pitch Class Pitch Level
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- 1.Joseph Frank, ‘Spatial Form in Modern Literature’, Criticism: the Foundations of Literary Judgment, ed. Mark Schorer et al (New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1958), p. 383.Google Scholar
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- 11.Arthur Berger was the first to draw attention to the relevance of the octatonic scale to Stravinsky’s music and the first to call that scale by this name: ‘Problems of Pitch Organization in Stravinsky’, Perspectives of New Music, vol. 2, no. 1 (fall–winter 1963), pp. 11–42. Pieter C. van den Toorn, The Music of Igor Stravinsky (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983) is an exhaustive study of octatonicism in Stravinsky.Google Scholar
- 12.For the role of the octatonic scale and of symmetry in general in the music of Bartók, see Elliott Antokoletz, The Music of Béla Bartók (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1984).Google Scholar
- 13.Douglas Jarman, ‘Dr. Schön’s Five-Strophe Aria: Some Notes on Tonality and Pitch Association in Berg’s Lulu’, Perspectives of New Music, vol. 8, no. 2 (spring–summer 1970), pp. 23–48. In ‘Alban Berg: the Origins of a Method’, Music Analysis, vol. 6 (1987), pp. 273–88, Jarman shows how Berg exploits Basic Cell I in association with symmetrical formations as early as the Altenberg Songs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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