Political Succession during the Transition to Independence: Evidence from Europe

  • John Coakley


The process of political succession at the level of the formal political elite may in general be placed in one or other of three categories:
  1. 1.

    governmental succession, where a peaceful transfer of power is effected from one portion of the elite to another, or, depending on circumstances and matters of definition, from one elite to another, within the framework of an authoritative set of rules;

  2. 2.

    regime succession, where a portion of the elite or a counter-elite captures power by means of a (not necessarily violent) coup, in which the new rulers provide an alternative constitutional framework to justify their accession to power;

  3. 3.

    state succession, where a regional counter-elite captures power from the traditional elite of the centre.



Nationalist Movement Political Succession Home Rule Traditional Elite German Army 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 2.
    For accounts of the evolution of nationalist movements in the countries in question see E. Jutikkala, A History of Finland (London: Thames and Hudson, 1962)Google Scholar
  2. J. H. Jackson, Estonia (London: George Allen and Unwin, 2nd edn, 1948)Google Scholar
  3. Alfred Bilmanis, A History of Latvia (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1951)Google Scholar
  4. Alfred Erich Senn, The Emergence of Modern Lithuania (New York: Columbia University Press, 1959)Google Scholar
  5. C. A. Macartney, The Habsburg Empire, 1790–1918 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969)Google Scholar
  6. F. S. L. Lyons, Ireland since the Famine (London: Collins/Fontana, rev. edn, 1973).Google Scholar
  7. 4.
    On developments around the period of independence see the works cited in note 2 and also D. G. Kirby, Finland in the Twentieth Century: A history and an interpretation (London: C. Hurst, 1979)Google Scholar
  8. Georg von Rauch, The Baltic States: The years of independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 1917–1940 (London: C. Hurst, 1970)Google Scholar
  9. Malbone W. Graham, New Governments of Eastern Europe (New York: Henry Holt, 1927)Google Scholar
  10. Victor S. Mamatey and Radomir Luza (eds), A History of the Czechoslovak Republic 1918–1948 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973).Google Scholar
  11. 6.
    On the most obvious area of external intervention see Stanley W. Page, The Formation of the Baltic States: A study of the effects of great power politics upon the emergence of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 7.
    Andrew Ezergailis, The 1917 Revolution in Latvia (Boulder, Colo.: East European Quarterly, 1974).Google Scholar
  13. 8.
    Calculated from O. H. Radkey, The Election to the Russian Constituent Assembly of 1917 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1950) pp. 78–80.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Peter Calvert 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Coakley

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations