Breathlessness — The Sense of Respiratory Muscle Effort
The sensation of breathlessness is so commonly linked to disorders of the heart, lungs and neuromuscular systems that its occurence in normal people is neglected. Meakins (27, 28) reasoned that breathlessness was the perception of respiratory muscle effort and as such was quantitative “occurring in normal subjects and athletes”. Despite: (1) the simplicity of this hypothesis; (2) its ability to explain the occurence of breathlessness in both health and disease; (3) its ability to explain all the circumstances in which breathlessness occurs; there have been few attempts to establish its validity.
KeywordsMaximum Exercise Motor Command Inspiratory Muscle Borg Scale Maximum Inspiratory Pressure
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Borg, G. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 14, 377–381.Google Scholar
- 2.Borg, G., and Noble, B. (1974). Perceived Exertion. In Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews. (ed. J.H. Wilmore). Academic Press, New York. 2, 131–153.Google Scholar
- 8.El-Manshawi, A., Killian, K.J., Summers, E. and Jones, N.L. (1984). Breathlessness during exercise with and without respiratory loading. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 7, Supp.2:81.Google Scholar
- 9.Galanter, E. Contemporary Psychophysics. (1962). In New Directions in Psychology. Holt, New York.Google Scholar
- Leblanc, P., Bowie, D.M., Summers, E., Jones, N.L. and Killian, K.J. (1985). Breathlessness and exercise in patients with cardiorespiratory disease. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., In Press.Google Scholar
- 19.Leblanc, P., Bowie, D.M., Killian, K.J., Summers, E. and Campbell, E.J.M. (1984). Usefulness of determination of esophageal pressure in evaluation of breathlessness in normal subjects. Fed. Proc. 43, 850.Google Scholar
- 20.Leblanc, P., Liao, Mei-Lin, Jones, N.L. and Killian, K.J. (1985). Relationship between FEV 1 and exercise capacity. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 131, 4, A308.Google Scholar
- 21.Leblanc, P., Bowie, D.M., Killian, K.J. (1985). Breathlessness in normal subjects during exercise. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 131, 4, A308.Google Scholar
- 23.Marks, L.E. Sensory Processes. The New Psychophysics. (1974). Academic Press, New York, 334.Google Scholar
- 24.Martin, D.H., Bowie, D.M., Summers, E., Killian, K.J. (1985). Respiratory muscle strength and its relation to breathlessness. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 131, 4, A308.Google Scholar
- 25.Martin, D.H., Summers, E., Killian, K.J. (1985). The contribution of maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) to exercise performance in patients referred for exercise testing. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 131, 4, A347.Google Scholar
- 34.Sherrington, C.S. (1900). The muscular sense. In Textbook Physiology. 2, (ed. E.A. Shafer). Edinburgh. 1002–1025.Google Scholar