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Georges Sorel and the Nouvelle Ecole

  • Jeremy Jennings
Part of the St Antony’s book series

Abstract

In 1899, after a direct appeal on his behalf by Jean Jaurès to the minister of commerce Alexandre Millerand, an impoverished Fernand Pelloutier took up temporary employment at the Office du Travail, his task to complete a statistical enquiry on trade unions in France. The unlikely intermediary between Pelloutier and these two representatives of reformist socialism was Georges Sorel.

Keywords

Political Party Capitalist Society Democratic Theory Socialist Party Political Democracy 
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Notes

  1. 4.
    Several bibliographies of Sorel’s work are available but the best is to be found in J. Julliard and S. Sand (eds), Georges Sorel en son temps (Paris: 1985), pp. 425–67.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    G. Sorel, ‘L’Ethique du socialisme’, Rév. mét, VII, 1899, pp. 280–301.Google Scholar
  3. 7.
    G. Sorel, ‘Morale et socialisme’, MS, I, 1899, p. 208.Google Scholar
  4. 10.
    See especially G. Sorel, Le Procès de Socrate (Paris: 1899) and ‘Essai sur la philosophie de Proudhon’, Revue philosophique, XXXIII, 1892, pp. 622–38 and XXXIV, 1892, pp. 41–68.Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    G. Sorel, ‘Socialismes nationaux’, Cahiers de la Quinzaine, 14th cahier of the 3rd series, 1902, p. 52. See G. Sorel, ‘Les Aspects juridiques du socialisme’, RS, XXXII, 1900, pp. 385–415, 558–85 and S. Sand, ‘Lutte de classes et conscience juridique dans la pensée de Georges Sorel’, in J. Julliard and S. Sand, pp. 225–45.Google Scholar
  6. 12.
    G. Sorel, L’Avenir socialiste des syndicats (Paris: 1898), p. 10. This section was not reprinted in the later editions.Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    G. Sorel, ‘L’Avenir socialiste des syndicats’, in G. Sorel, Matériaux d’une théorie du prolétariat (Paris: 1919), p. 127.Google Scholar
  8. 15.
    G. Sorel, ‘Les divers types de sociétés coopératives’, La Science sociale, XXVIII, 1899, p. 188.Google Scholar
  9. See also G. Sorel, Les Illusions du progrès (Paris: 1908), pp. 276–86.Google Scholar
  10. 16.
    G. Sorel, ‘Les Dissensions de la social démocratie en Allemagne’, Revue politique et parlemantaire, XXV, 1900, pp. 33–66.Google Scholar
  11. 32.
    G. Sorel, ‘Les divers types de sociétés coopératives’ and ‘Les Grèves’, La Science sociale, XXX, 1900, pp. 311–32 and 417–36.Google Scholar
  12. 51.
    G. Sorel, ‘Qu’est-ce qu’un syndicat?’ Pages libres, 116, 21 March 1903, pp. 241–57.Google Scholar
  13. 55.
    G. Sorel, La Révolution dreyfusienne (Paris: 1909).Google Scholar
  14. 56.
    G. Sorel, Réflexions sur la violence (Paris: 1908). The first edition appeared as a series of articles in Le Mouvement socialiste, beginning in January 1906.Google Scholar
  15. 70.
    G. Sorel, Les Illusions du progrès (Paris: 1908), p. 276.Google Scholar
  16. 74.
    G. Sorel, Saggi di critica del marxismo (Milan-Palermo-Naples: 1903), p. 15.Google Scholar
  17. 75.
    G. Sorel, La Décomposition du marxisme (Paris: 1908), p. 58.Google Scholar
  18. 79.
    G. Sorel, ‘Eglise, Evangile et Socialisme’, (1899), in G. Sorel, La Ruine du monde antique (Paris: 1902), p. 311.Google Scholar
  19. 81.
    M. Rebérioux, ‘La place de Georges Sorel dans le socialisme au tournant du siècle’, in J. Julliard and S. Sand (eds), p. 48. Pierre Monatte made a similar point: see C. Chambelland, ‘Monatte, lecteur de Sorel’, Cahiers Georges Sorel, 4, 1986, p. 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 82.
    For details of Berth’s life and an incomplete bibliography see P. Andreu, ‘Bibliographie d’Edouard Berth’, Bulletin of the International Institute of Social History, 8, 1953, pp. 196–204,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. and P. Andreu, Introduction to ‘Lettres de Georges Sorel à Edouard Berth’, Cahiers Georges Sorel, 3, 1985, pp. 77–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 83.
    E. Berth, ‘Avant-Propos’, to G. Sorel, D’Aristote à Marx (Paris: 1935), p. 8.Google Scholar
  23. 84.
    See G. Sorel, ‘La crise de la pensée catholique’, Revue de métaphysique et de morale, X, 1902, pp. 523–57Google Scholar
  24. and E. Berth, ‘La crise de la pensée catholique’, MS, XII, 1904, pp. 188–94.Google Scholar
  25. 136.
    G. Sorel, ‘Idées socialistes et faits économiques’, RS, XXXV, 1902, pp. 294–318, 385–410, 519–544.Google Scholar
  26. 139.
    G. Sorel, Introduction à l’économie moderne (Paris: 1903).Google Scholar
  27. 156.
    See G. Sorel, ‘Taine devant l’Académie’, La Jeunesse socialiste, I, 1895, pp. 100–104; ‘L’hypocrisie du devoir’, La Jeunesse socialiste, I, 1895, pp. 138–41; ‘Education bourgeoise’, La Jeunesse socialiste, I, 1895, pp. 169–72; ‘Faillite de la science bourgeoise’, La Jeunesse socialiste, I, 1895, pp. 209–11; ‘Les procédés historiques de M. Tarde’, La Jeunesse socialiste, I, 1895, pp. 254–8; ‘Sémites et cléricaux’, La Jeunesse socialiste, I, 1895, pp. 325–8.Google Scholar
  28. 157.
    See H. Lagardelle, ‘Lettere di Giorgio Sorel a Uberto Lagardelle’, Educazione fascista, XI, 1933, pp. 229–43, 320–34, 506–18, 760–783, 956–75;Google Scholar
  29. A. Riosa, ‘La correspondance Sorel-Lagardelle: la découverte de l’original’, Cahiers Georges Sorel, 2, 1984, pp. 130–6. Alceo Riosa intends to publish the complete correspondence in the near future.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 158.
    Surprisingly little has been written on Lagardelle but see M. Dachary de Flers, Lagardelle et l’Equipe du Mouvement socialiste, Thèse de Doctorat du Troisième Cycle, Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris, 1982;Google Scholar
  31. G. A. P. Turko, The Life and Ideas of Hubert Lagardelle (Ph.D., London 1977).Google Scholar
  32. 159.
    H. Lagardelle, ‘Nos Principes’, La Jeunesse socialiste, I, 1895, pp. 57–66.Google Scholar
  33. 160.
    H. Lagardelle, ‘La Question sociale et le socialisme’, Le Devenir social, IV, 1898, pp. 270–84.Google Scholar
  34. 161.
    For a detailed discussion of the contents, contributors and readership of Le Mouvement socialiste, see de Fiers, op. cit. See also M. de Fiers, ‘Le Mouvement socialiste (1899–1914)’, Cahiers Georges Sorel, 5, 1987, pp. 49–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 162.
    See in particular H. Lagardelle, ‘Le Socialisme et l’Affaire Dreyfus’, MS, I, 1899, pp. 155–66, 285–99.Google Scholar
  36. 208.
    See G. Sorel, ‘Préface’ to S. Merlino, Formes et essence du socialisme, (Paris: 1898), p. xiv,Google Scholar
  37. and H. Lagardelle, ‘Les Caractères généraux du syndicalisme’, MS, XXIII, 1908, p. 436.Google Scholar
  38. 214.
    G. Sorel, Lettres à Paul Delesalle (Paris: 1947), p. 109.Google Scholar
  39. 215.
    G. B. Furiozzi, ‘Quattro lettere inedite di Sorel’, Pensiero politico, X, 1977, pp. 419–424; G. Sorel, Lettres à Paul Delesalle, p. 109;Google Scholar
  40. G. Sorel, ‘Lettere a Uberto Lagardelle’, Educazione fascista, XI, 1933, p. 963.Google Scholar
  41. 216.
    For a detailed account of the ‘Byzantine interactions’ involved see P. Mazgaj, The Action Française and Revolutionary Syndicalism (Chapel Hill: 1979).Google Scholar
  42. 217.
    For Valois’ own account of this episode see G. Valois, D’un siècle à l’autre (Paris: 1921). Having begun his career as an anarchist Valois had first met Pelloutier, Delesalle and Sorel before the turn of the century. He went on to become the founder of France’s first overtly Fascist political party.Google Scholar
  43. 219.
    See G. Valois, ‘Syndicalisme et démocratie, une note de M. Hubert Lagardelle’, Revue critique des idées et des livres, XII, 1911, pp. 87–90.Google Scholar
  44. 223.
    A facsimile edition of the Cahiers du Cercle Proudhon has recently been issued: see P. Andreu (ed.), Cahiers du Cercle Proudhon (Paris: 1976).Google Scholar
  45. 224.
    G. Guy-Grand, ‘Le Procès de la démocratie’, Revue de métaphysique et de morale, XVIII, 1910, pp. 102–35, 242–61, 356–96, 545–80, 694–710. Sorel used the expression ‘guy-grandesque’ as a term of contempt.Google Scholar
  46. 226.
    E. Berth, ‘Le procès de la Démocratie’, Revue critique des idées et des livres, XIII, 1911, pp. 9–46.Google Scholar
  47. 231.
    G. Valois, ‘Pourquoi nous rattachons nos travaux à l’esprit proudhonien’, Cahiers du Cercle Proudhon, 1, January–February, 1912, p. 42.Google Scholar
  48. 232.
    A. Vincent, ‘La Famille chez Proudhon et dans la Démocratie’, Cahiers du Cercle Proudhon, 3–4, May–August, 1912, p. 149.Google Scholar
  49. 234.
    J. Darville, ‘Proudhon’, Cahiers du Cercle Proudhon, 1, January–February, 1912, pp. 9–28.Google Scholar
  50. 235.
    J. Darville, ‘Satellites de la ploutocratie’, Cahiers du Cercle Proudhon, 5–6, 1913, pp. 177–211.Google Scholar
  51. 240.
    E. Berth, Les méfaits des intellectuels (Paris: 1914).Google Scholar
  52. 242.
    G. Sorel, ‘La disfatta dei “mufles”’, Il Divenire sociale, V, 1909, pp. 177–81; ‘Socialistes antiparlementaires’, Action française, 22 August 1909.Google Scholar
  53. 245.
    H. Lagrange, ‘L’Oeuvre de Sorel et le Cercle Proudhon’, Cahiers du Cercle Proudhon, 3–4, May–August, 1912, p. 129.Google Scholar
  54. 246.
    P. Andreu, Introduction to ‘Lettres de Georges Sorel à Edouard Berth’, Cahiers Georges Sorel, 3, 1985, p. 81.Google Scholar
  55. 248.
    G. Sorel, Terre libre, 15 July 1910. I thank Michel Prat for bringing this letter to my attention.Google Scholar
  56. 249.
    G. Sorel, ‘Urbain Gohier’, L’Indépendance, II, 1912, pp. 305–20.Google Scholar
  57. 251.
    G. Sorel, La Révolution dreyfusienne (Paris: 1908); reference to 2nd edition (Paris: 1911), p. 64.Google Scholar
  58. 253.
    G. Sorel, ‘Urbain Gohier’; ‘Quelques prétentions juives’, L’Indépendance, III, 1912, pp. 217–36, 277–95, 317–36; ‘Aux temps dreyfusiens’, L’Indépendance, IV, 1912, pp. 29–56.Google Scholar
  59. 255.
    R. Louzon, ‘La faillite du Dreyfusisme ou le triomphe du parti juif’, MS, XX, 1906, pp. 192–9.Google Scholar
  60. 256.
    S. Sand, ‘Sorel, les Juifs et l’antisémitisme’, Cahiers Georges Sorel, 2, 1984, pp. 7–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. For a different view see D. Lindenberg, ‘Mouvement prolétarien et révolution religieuse: Georges Sorel critique de Renan’, in J. Julliard and S. Sand (eds) Georges Sorel en son temps (Paris: 1985), pp. 189–201.Google Scholar
  62. 259.
    G. Sorel, ‘Modernismo nella religione e nel socialismo’, Il Divenire sociale, III, 1907, pp. 339–45; reprinted in the original French in Revue critique des idées et des livres, II, 1908, pp. 177–204.Google Scholar
  63. 261.
    G. Sorel, ‘Trois problèmes’, L’Indépendance, II, 1911, pp. 221–40, 261–79.Google Scholar
  64. 263.
    G. Sorel, ‘Lyripipi sorbonici moralisationes’, L’Indépendance, I, 1911, pp. 111–25; ‘Si les dogmes évoluent’, II, 1911, pp. 31–44; ‘Une critique des sociologues’, II, 1911, pp. 73–84.Google Scholar
  65. 264.
    G. Sorel, ‘L’Evolution créatrice’, MS, XXII, 1907, pp. 257–82, 478–94; MS, XXXIII, 1908, pp. 34–52, 184–94, 276–94.Google Scholar
  66. 265.
    See in particular G. Sorel, De l’utilité du pragmatisme (Paris: 1921), pp. 357–451.Google Scholar
  67. For a discussion of this issue see S. Sand, ‘Quelques remarques sur Sorel critique de “l’Evolution créatrice”. Quatre lettres inédites de Bergson à Sorel’, Cahiers Georges Sorel, I, 1983, pp. 109–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 266.
    G. Sorel, ‘Vues sur les problèmes de la philosophie’, Rev. mét., XIX, 1911, p. 99.Google Scholar
  69. 269.
    H. Lagardelle, Le Socialisme ouvrier (Paris: 1911) p. xiv.Google Scholar
  70. 270.
    See H. Lagardelle, ‘La formation du syndicalisme en France’, MS, XXX, 1911, pp. 161–86, 241–57; XXXI, 1912, pp. 134–146.Google Scholar
  71. 271.
    See in particular H. Lagardelle, review of G. Valois, La monarchie et la classe ouvriére, MS, XXVIII, 1910, pp. 239–40; ‘La Critique syndicaliste de la démocratie’, MS, XXIX, 1911, pp. 81–6; ‘Nouveaux problèmes’, MS, XXX, 1911, pp. 321–4; ‘Proudhon et les Néo-Monarchistes’, MS, XXXI, 1912, pp. 65–9; ‘Les Ennemis de Rousseau’, MS, XXXII, 1912, pp. 101–6.Google Scholar
  72. 272.
    H. Lagardelle, ‘Monarchistes et syndicalistes’, MS, XXIX, 1911, p. 54.Google Scholar
  73. 275.
    H. Lagardelle, ‘La Démocratie en France’, MS, XXXIII, 1912, pp. 321–32; XXXIV, 1913, pp. 13–29.Google Scholar
  74. See also H. Lagardelle, ‘Préface’ to J. Gaumont, L’Etat contre la nation (Paris: 1911).Google Scholar
  75. 277.
    Ibid., pp. 330–2; see also H. Lagardelle, ‘La Démocratie et les partis politiques’, MS, XXXII, 1912, pp. 313–8.Google Scholar
  76. 285.
    G. Sorel, ‘Lettres à Mario Missiroli’, in G. Sorel, Da Proudhon a Lenin e l’Europa sotto la tormenta (Rome: 1974), p. 513.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© J. R. Jennings 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy Jennings
    • 1
  1. 1.University CollegeSwanseaUK

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