While civil defence in Britain and the United States has rarely advanced beyond the periodic articulation of paper plans, Switzerland and the USSR have attempted to put such plans into operation. Yet none of these four states has succeeded in giving full effect to the stated rationales for its programme, let alone succeeded in providing full protection against the effects of nuclear attack. All four states have been forced to confront both the technical and the political limits of civil defence.


Nuclear Weapon Crisis Management Defence Policy Humanitarian Insurance Civil Defence 
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  1. 2.
    Cited in Robert Scheer, With Enough Shovels: Reagan, Bush and Nuclear War (London: Secker & Warburg, 1982) p. 3.Google Scholar

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© Lawrence J. Vale 1987

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  • Lawrence J. Vale

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