Epidemiological Methods and Data for the Identification of Man-made Environmental Hazards to Health

  • Michael E. McDowall
Chapter

Abstract

There are several approaches used in epidemiology which can be referred to in any introductory text1–4. Reference to such a text will show that much of the discussion of these methods concerns likely biases in their application and problems of interpretation – questions of critical importance in practical epidemiology.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Lilienfeld, A. M. and Lilienfeld, D. E. (1980). Foundations of Epidemiology. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alderson, M. R. (1984). Introduction to Epidemiology. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mausner, J. S. and Kramer, S. (1985). Epidemiology –an Introductory Text. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kahn, H. A. (1983). An Introduction to Epidemiologic Methods. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Medical Research Council Environmental Epidemiology Unit (1984). Expected Numbers in Cohort Studies. MRC. E.E.U. Scientific Report No 6, SouthamptonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marmot, M. G., Adelstein, A. M. and Bulusu, L. (1984). Immigrant Mortality in England and Wales 1970–78. O.P.C.S. SMPS No. 47. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fox, A. J., Jones, D., Moser, K. and Goldblatt, P. (1985). Socio-demographic differentials in mortality 1971-81. Popul. Trends, 40, 10Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    O.P.C.S. (1985). Infant and Perinatal Mortality 1983. O.P.C.S. Monitor DH3 85/2Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    O.P.C.S. (1983). Congenital Malformation Statistics: Notifications 1971–80. MB3 No. 1. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fielding, J. E. (1985). Smoking, health effects and control. New Engl. J. Med., 313, 491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ericson, A., Kallen, B. and Westerholm, P. (1979). Cigarette smoking as an aetiologic factor in cleft lip and palate. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol, 135, 348Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kilpatrick, S. J. (1962). Occupational mortality indices. Popul. Studies, 16, 175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McDowall, M. E. (1985). Occupational Reproductive Epidemiology. O.P.C.S. SMPS No. 50. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gaffey, W. R. (1976). A critique of the standardised mortality ratio. J. Occup. Med., 18, 157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lilienfeld, D. E. and Payne, D. A. (1979). On indices of mortality: deficiencies, validity and alternatives. J. Chronic Dis., 32, 463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Burack, T. S., Burack, W. R. and Knowlden, N. F. (1983). Cancer II: distortions in standardised rates. J. Occup. Med., 25, 737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Inskip, H., Beral, V. and Fraser, P. (1983). Methods for age adjustment of rates. Stat. Med., 2, 455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kupper, L. L., McMichael, A. J., Symons, M. J. and Most, B. M. (1978). On the utility of proportional mortality analyses.J. Chronic Dis., 31, 15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Roman, E., Beval, V., Inskip, H., McDowall, M. E. and Adelstein, A. (1984). A comparison of standardised and proportional mortality ratios. Stat. Med. ,3, 7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McDowall, M. E. (1983). Adjusting proportional mortality ratios for the influence of extraneous causes of death. Stat. Med., 2, 467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Breslow, N. E. and Day, N. E. (1980). Statistical methods in cancer research. 1. The analysis of case control studies. I.A.R.C., LyonsGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit (1984).Expected Numbers in Cohort Studies. MRC, SouthamptonGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Heasman, M. A. and Lipworth, L. (1966). Accuracy of Certification of Cause of Death. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Waldron, H. A. and Wikerstaff, L. (1977). Intimations of Quality. Nuffield Hospitals Trust, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cameron, H. H. and McGoogan, E. (1981).J. Pathol, 133, 273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Medical Aspects of Death Certification. A joint report of the Royal College of Physicians and the Royal College of Pathologists. J. Roy. Coll. Phys., 16 (1982)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Michael E. McDowall 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael E. McDowall

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations