Cognitive and Social Factors in Psychological Adaptation to Acculturation Among the James Bay Cree

  • John W. Berry


How an individual adapts to culture change is a topic of increasing importance in the contemporary world. The process of urbanisation, the export of technology, the wide availability of telemedia, and the ubiquity of formal educational programmes all mean that most individuals will not live out their lives in the same cultural circumstances as those in which they were initially raised. Given that most of these influences come from outside one’s culture, we can identify the process as one of acculturation, and the problem as one of potential conflict between the changes of acculturation and the continuity of enculturation. In this statement we assume that individuals who have been raised on one culture will have developed a set of behaviours which is consistent with the cultural norms of that society (see Triandis et al., 1980, for evidence of such cultural-behavioural relationships); we further assume that breaking these relationships, by introducing new cultural norms to people with an established set of behaviour, will produce some degree of difficulty, and require some psychological adaptation.


Psychological Variable Acculturative Stress Psychological Adaptation Intergroup Contact Hydroelectric Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amir, Y. (1976) ‘The role of intergroup contact on change of prejudice and ethnic relations’, in Katz, P. (ed.), Towards the elimination of racism, New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  2. Berry, J. W. (1976) Human Ecology and Cognitive Style: Comparative Studies in Cultural and Psychological Adaptation, New York: Sage/Halsted.Google Scholar
  3. Berry, J. W. (1978) ‘Acculturative stress among the James Bay Cree: Prelude to a hydro-electric project’, in Muller-Wille, L., Pelto, P., Muller-Wille, L. and Darnell, R. (eds), Unexpected Consequences of Economic Change in Circumpolar Regions, Edmonton: Boreal Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Berry, J. W. (1980) ‘Acculturation as varieties of adaptation’, in Padilla, A. (ed.), Acculturation: Theory, Models and Some New Findings, Boulder, Col: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  5. Berry, J. W. (1981) ‘Native peoples and the larger society’, in Gardner, R. C. and Kalin, R. (eds), A Canadian Social Psychology of Ethnic Relations, Toronto: Methuen.Google Scholar
  6. Berry, J. W. and Annis, R. C. (1974) ‘Acculturative stress: the role of ecology culture and differentiation’, Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 5, 382–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berry, J. W., Kalin, R. and Taylor, D. M. (1977) Multiculturalism and Ethnic Attitudes in Canada, Ottawa: Supply and Services.Google Scholar
  8. Cawte, J., Bianchi, G.N. and Kiloh, L. G. (1968) ‘Personal discomfort in Australian Aborigines’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 2, 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chance, N. A. (1968) Conflict in Culture: Problems of Developmental Change among the Cree, Ottawa: Canadian Research Centre for Anthropology.Google Scholar
  10. Foster, G., Scudder, T., Colson, E., and Kemper, R. V. (1979) Long-term Field Research in Social Anthropology, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Graves, T. D. (1967) ‘Psychological acculturation in a tri-ethnic community’, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 23, 337–50.Google Scholar
  12. Helm, J., Rogers, E. S. and Smith, J. (1981) ‘Intercultural relations and cultural change in the shield and MacKenzie borderlands’, in Helm, J. (ed.), Handbook of American Indians & Subarctic, Washington: Smithsonian.Google Scholar
  13. Kohs, S. C. (1923) Manual for the Kohs Block Design Test, Chicago: Stoelting.Google Scholar
  14. Mann, J. (1958) ‘Group relations and the marginal man’, Human Relations, 11, 77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mawhinney, T. A. (1983) ‘A picture vocabulary test for the Eastern James Bay Cree’, in Irvine, S. H. and Berry, J. W. (eds), Human Assessment and Cultural Factors, New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  16. Raven, J. C. (1963) Guide to Using the Coloured Progressive Matrices, London: Lewis.Google Scholar
  17. Redfield, R., Linton, R., and Herskovits, M. J. (1936) ‘Memorandum on the study of acculturation’, American Anthropologist, 38, 149–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sommerlad, E. A. and Berry, J. W. (1970) ‘The role of ethnic identification in distinguishing between attitudes towards assimilation and integration of a minority racial group’, Human Relations, 23, 23–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Triandis, H. C., et al. (1980) Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, vols. 1–6.Google Scholar
  20. Wintrob, R. M. (1968) ‘Acculturation, identification and psychopathology among Cree Indian youth’, in Chance, N. A. (ed.), Conflict in Culture: Problems of Developmental Change among the Cree, Ottawa: Canadian Research Centre for Anthropology.Google Scholar
  21. Wintrob, R. M., and Sindell, P. S. (1970) ‘Education and identity conflict among Cree youth’, in Chance, N. A. (ed.), Developmental Change Among the Cree Indians in Quebec, Ottawa: DREE.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Gajendra K. Verma and Christopher Bagley 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • John W. Berry

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations