The English Renaissance: Art and Politics, 1840–95

  • Richard Pine


The mediaeval spirit persisted, and flourished, in England: in the early Victorian age we see a new period, the modern, self-consciously coming into existence as it celebrates the final gestures of the old. This self-consciousness is exhibited in attitudes to art, such as Pre-Raphaelitism, the renewal of interest in chivalry, and in a confusion in the minds of artists and politicians as to their mutual relationship (evident in the novels of Disraeli and Bulwer Lytton); furthermore, it becomes obvious in the way in which the new age developed its own particular style — for example in the emergence of three apparently unrelated elements, art-criticism, the urban middle-class, and religious doubt.


Civil Disobedience Modern Artist Universal Suffrage Religious Doubt Modern Poetry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes and References

  1. 2.
    R. Blake, Disraeli (Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1966) p. 77.Google Scholar
  2. quoting J. Pope-Hennessy, Monckton Milnes: The Years of Promise (1949) p. 88.Google Scholar
  3. 10.
    D. H. Lawrence, Psychology and the Unconscious (Secker, 1923 ) p. 12.Google Scholar
  4. 11.
    J. Dixon Hunt, The Pre-Raphaelite Imagination 1818–1900 (Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1968) pp. 203–9.Google Scholar
  5. 12.
    Quoted in W. Gaunt, The Restless Century: Painting in Britain 1800–1900 (Phaidon, 1972) p. 27.Google Scholar
  6. 13.
    J. Huizinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages (1924) trans. F. Hopman (Penguin, 1965 ) p. 13.Google Scholar
  7. 20.
    S. Heaney, ‘Feeling into Words’, in Preoccupations: Selected Prose 1968–1978 (Faber and Faber, 1980) p. 56.Google Scholar
  8. Cf. J. Wilson, I Was an English Poet, a biography of Sir William Watson (Cecil Woolf, 1982).Google Scholar
  9. 29.
    D. Thomas, Swinburne: the poet in his world (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1979) pp. 206–10.Google Scholar
  10. 30.
    Quoted in S. Weintraub, Beardsley (W. H. Allen, 1967 ) p. 243.Google Scholar
  11. 31.
    Burke, Reflections on the French Revolution (1912 edn) p. 73.Google Scholar
  12. 32.
    K. Digby, The Broad Stone of Honour, vol. 1 (1844 edn) pp. 86–7, quoted in M. Girouard, The Return to Camelot (Yale University Press, 1981 ).Google Scholar
  13. 35.
    G. C. Coulton, Mediaeval Panorama (Cambridge University Press, 1938 ) p. 235.Google Scholar
  14. 50.
    Wilde, Letters, (ed.), R. Hart-Davis (Hart-Davis, 1962) pp. 352–3.Google Scholar
  15. 58.
    Pelham: The Works of Lord Lytton Knebworth Edn in 37 vols (Routledge, 1873–1877) p. 180.Google Scholar
  16. 65.
    Quoted in C. E. M. Joad, Decadence, A Philosophical Enquiry (Faber, 1948 ) p. 12.Google Scholar
  17. 66.
    M. Arnold, Culture and Anarchy (Cambridge University Press, 1960 )Google Scholar
  18. 67.
    Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (Penguin, 1983) p. 385.Google Scholar
  19. 71.
    A. de Jonge, Baudelaire, Prince of Clouds (Paddington Press, 1976) p. 89.Google Scholar
  20. 72.
    Quoted in R. Poggioli, The Theory of the Avant Garde, trans. G. Fitzgerald (Belknap Press, 1981 ) p. 9.Google Scholar
  21. 73.
    Baudelaire, Oeuvres Complètes (Paris, 1961) p. 952.Google Scholar
  22. 75.
    Mon Coeur Mis A Nu, in Intimate Journals, trans. C. Isherwood (Panther Books, 1969) p. 52.Google Scholar
  23. 76.
    Yeats, Synge and the Ireland of His Time ( Dublin: Cuala Press, 1911 ) p. 3.Google Scholar
  24. 83.
    Swinburne, Complete Works, E. Gosse and T. J. Wise (eds) (Heinemann, 1925–27) vol. xni, pp. 420–1.Google Scholar
  25. 87.
    R. Buchanan, Fleshly School of Poetry ( Edinburgh: Strahan, 1872 ).Google Scholar
  26. 89.
    P. Appleman, ‘Darwin, Pater and a Crisis in Criticism’, in P. Appleman (ed.), 1859: Entering an Age of Crisis ( Bloomington, Indiana: 1959 ) pp. 81–95.Google Scholar
  27. 90.
    Pater, Plato and Platonism (Macmillan, 1893) p. 9.Google Scholar
  28. 92.
    M. Levey, The Case of Walter Pater (Thames and Hudson, 1978) p. 95.Google Scholar
  29. 94.
    Pater, Appreciations (Macmillan, 1889) pp. 9–10.Google Scholar
  30. 100.
    R. Hart-Davis (ed.) (John Murray, 1985) p. 48.Google Scholar
  31. 103.
    P. Ackroyd, Last Testament of Oscar Wilde (Abacus, 1984) p. 143.Google Scholar
  32. 118.
    E. Bendz, Oscar Wilde, A Retrospect ( Penn.: Folcroft, 1969 ) p. 6.Google Scholar
  33. 123.
    Beerbohm, in K. Beckson (ed.), Oscar Wilde: The Critical Heritage (Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970 ).Google Scholar
  34. 124.
    Cf. M. Miyoshi, The Divided Self: a perspective on the literature of the Victorians (New York University Press, 1969 ) pp. 294, 301, 355.Google Scholar
  35. 126.
    E. Carpenter, Towards Democracy, 1883 (Unwin, 1892, 3rd edn).Google Scholar
  36. 131.
    R. Ellmann, Eminent Domain (Oxford University Press, 1967) pp. 12–13.Google Scholar
  37. 132.
    L. MacNeice, The Poetry of W. B. Yeats (Faber and Faber, 1967 ) p. 51.Google Scholar
  38. 133.
    W. B. Yeats, Mythologies (Macmillan, 1959 ) p. 331.Google Scholar
  39. 135.
    In J. Ronsley (ed.), Myth and Reality in Irish Literature ( Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 1977 ) p. 102.Google Scholar
  40. 141.
    S. Nalbantian, Seeds of Decadence in the late Nineteenth Century Novel (Macmillan, 1983) p. 116.Google Scholar
  41. 143.
    A. Symons, The Symbolist Movement in Literature (1899) p. 191.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Richard Pine 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Pine

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations