Pakistan: The Domestic Dimensions of Security

  • Gowher Rizvi


One of the crucial problems involved in studying the domestic dimensions of security is to determine what constitutes a threat to national security. In the international arena there is in practice no real distinction between a threat to a state or to the government, for at that level the two are almost interchangeable terms. But when one looks at the domestic sources of insecurity one must make a distinction between the state and the government. It is perfectly legitimate for the opposing political groups to work for the removal of a government and, provided there is an agreed procedure for the transfer of power, it in no way threatens the security of the state. But very often in weak and immature states, an attempt to oust the government is portrayed by the party in power so as to imply a threat to the state.1 Thus when examining the domestic dimensions of security a major problem is to distinguish between the legitimate opposition to the government and those factors which threaten the continued existence of the state.


Military Regime Parliamentary Democracy Popular Participation Afghan Refugee Domestic Security 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    B. Buzan, People, States and Fear. The National Security Problem in International Relations (Brighton, 1983) ch. 2.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    S. P. Cohen, ‘Pakistan’ in E. A. Kolodziej and R. E. Harkavy (eds), Security Policies of Developing Countries (Lexington, 1982) pp. 93–117.Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    Cited in K. B. Sayeed, The Political System of Pakistan (Karachi, 1967) p. 33.Google Scholar
  4. 8.
    For Pakistan’s failure to evolve a composite nationalism see R. Jahan, Pakistan: Failure in National Integration (New York, 1972), passim.Google Scholar
  5. 9.
    K. B. Sayeed, Pakistan: The Formative Phase 1897–1948 (London, 1968) p. 104.Google Scholar
  6. 11.
    G. M. Syed, Struggle for New Sindi (Karachi, 1949), p. 216.Google Scholar
  7. 12.
    I. H. Qureshi, The Future Development of Islamic Polity (Lahore, 1946) p. 23 cited in Sayeed, The Political System of Pakistan, p. 53.Google Scholar
  8. 16.
    C. Rahmat Ali, Pakistan the Fatherland of the Pak Nation (London, 1947).Google Scholar
  9. 17.
    Sir Maurice Gwyer and A. Appadorai (eds), Speeches and Documents on the Indian Constitution 1921–1947 (London, 1957) vol. II, pp. 444–5.Google Scholar
  10. 19.
    Cited in R. Coupland, Indian Politics 1936–42 (Oxford, 1943) pp. 203–4.Google Scholar
  11. 21.
    L. A. Sherwani (ed.), Pakistan Resolution to Pakistan 1940–1947 (Karachi, 1969) p. 21.Google Scholar
  12. 22.
    Gowher Rizvi, Linlithgow and India: British Policy and Political Impasse in India 1936–43 (London, 1978) pp. 89–128.Google Scholar
  13. 23.
    Ayesha, Jalal, The Sole Spokesman. Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan (Cambridge, 1975) pp. 134–8 and 171–3.Google Scholar
  14. 25.
    A. S. M. Abdur Rab, A. K. Fazlul Huq, Life and Achievements (Barisal, 1966) p. 89;Google Scholar
  15. see also Jumaira Momen, Muslim Politics in Bengal: A Study of Krishak Proja Pary and the Elections of 1937 (Dacca, 1972), passim.Google Scholar
  16. 27.
    For an excellent analysis, see L. Ziring, Pakistan, The Enigma of Political Development (Folkestone, 1980) chs 3 and 4.Google Scholar
  17. 28.
    G. W. Choudhury, Democracy in Pakistan (Dacca, 1963) ch. 5.Google Scholar
  18. 30.
    Gowher Rizvi, ‘Riding the Tiger: Institutionalising the Military Regimes in Pakistan and Bangladesh’, in C. Clapham and G. Philip (eds), The Political Dilemmas of Military Regimes (London, 1985) p. 204.Google Scholar
  19. 33.
    S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru, A Biography (London, 1979) vol. II, pp. 303–6.Google Scholar
  20. 34.
    See C. Clapham and G. Philip (eds), The Political Dilemmas of Military Regimes: W. F. Gutteridge, Military Regimes in Africa (London, 1975).Google Scholar
  21. 35.
    A. F. Madden, “Not for Export”: The Westminster Model of Government and British Colonial Practice, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, vol. VIII, no. 1 (October 1979) pp. 10–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 36.
    S. M. Burke, ‘South Asia Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow’, in H. Wriggins (ed.), Pakistan in Transition (Islamabad, 1975) p. 240.Google Scholar
  23. 38.
    K. B. Sayeed, ‘Pathan Regionalism’, South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. LXIII, no. 4 (Autumn 1964) pp. 478–506.Google Scholar
  24. 39.
    For an excellent study of the Pathans see O. Caroe, The Pathans (London, 1958);Google Scholar
  25. A. S. Ahmed, Social and Economic Change in Tribal Areas (Karachi, 1977).Google Scholar
  26. 41.
    Z. Khalilzad, Security in South Asia 1. The Security of Southwest Asia (Aldershot, 1984) p. 141.Google Scholar
  27. 43.
    S. P. Cohen, The Pakistan Army (Berkeley, 1984) pp. 42–5;Google Scholar
  28. F. Ahmed, Focus on Baluchistan and the Pashtun Question (Lahore, 1975) p. 107.Google Scholar
  29. 45.
    T. Ali, Can Pakistan Survive? The Death of a State (Harmondsworth, 1983), see appendix 2: Interview with Murad Khan, pp. 200–9;Google Scholar
  30. Harrison, In Afghanistan’s Shadow: Baluch Nationalism and Soviet Temptations (New York, 1981).Google Scholar
  31. 49.
    S.A. Kochanek, Interest Groups and Development. Business and Politics in Pakistan (Delhi, 1983) p. 316.Google Scholar
  32. 50.
    Report of the Basic Principles Committee (Karachi, 1952); for a detailed analysis of regional representation, see K. Callard, Pakistan. A Political Study (London, 1958) pp. 155–93.Google Scholar
  33. 55.
    K. Prasad, ‘Pakistan-Iran Relations’, in S. Chopra (ed.), Perspectives on Pakistan’s Foreign Policy (Amritsar, 1983) pp. 340–41.Google Scholar
  34. 59.
    K. B. Griffin and A. R. Khan (eds), Growth and Inequality in Pakistan (London, 1972) pp. 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Barry Buzan and Gowher Rizvi 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gowher Rizvi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations