The Training Colleges, 1945–59

  • W. A. C. Stewart


In the nineteenth century and later, enlarged opportunities for schooling produced at critical periods a demand for emergency schemes to provide additional teachers. This happened after Forster’s Elementary Education Act of 1870, the Balfour Act of 1902, after the end of the First World War with the Fisher Act in 1918 and at the end of the Second World War in 1945. In 1944 the Board of Education provided plans for the financial support of students coming direct from military or war-related service to be taught by staff appointed or seconded specially for a short-term scheme of emergency training. Temporary buildings were found and it was anticipated that from 1945 to 1955 about 70000 additional teachers would be needed to staff new and renovated schools and to bear the brunt of raising the school-leaving age from 14 to 15, which had been planned for 1945 but was ultimately decreed for 1947. Trying also to bring to the schools a framework of staffing, pupil-intake, equipment, location and building, was a planning operation demanding skill in improvising and the ability to decide and act quickly, if necessary without all the official pieces of paper, but with a consistent realism.1


Local Authority Training College Emergency Scheme Emergency Training Additional Teacher 
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  1. 3.
    See W. R. Niblett, D. W. Humphreys, J. R. Fairhurst: The University Connection, London, 1975, Chapter 4, where the authors frequently draw on these Papers.Google Scholar
  2. My references to these Papers come mainly from this book and from the Report itself. A valuable account of the whole McNair period is to be found in P. H. J. H. Gosden: Education in the Second World War, London, 1976, Chapter 16, pp. 388–410.Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    See M. Cruickshank: History of the Training of Teachers in Scotland, London, 1970;Google Scholar
  4. J. Lynch: The Reform of Teacher Education in the United Kingdom, London, 1979;Google Scholar
  5. J. Scotland: ‘Scottish Education 1952–82’, British Journal of Educational Studies, XXX, 1982, pp. 122–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 9.
    T. P. Nunn: Education: Its Data and First Principles, London, 1920, 1930, 1945.Google Scholar
  7. For review and discussion of A. F. Leach’s massive contribution see articles by W. N. Chaplin (British Journal of Educational Studies XI, 2, pp. 99–111 and XII, 2, pp. 173–183) and by Joan Simon (ibid., XII, 1, pp. 41–50).Google Scholar
  8. For Foster Watson see an article by W. H. G. Armytage (ibid., X, 1, pp. 5–18). For Adamson see an article by H. C. Barnard (ibid., X, 1, pp. 19–32). On the history of educational ideas an important compendium for many years was R. R. Rusk: The Doctrines of the Great Educators, London, 1948.Google Scholar
  9. There are further contributions from Woodward, John Adams and others. On the whole issue see an article by B. Simon: ‘The Study of Education as a University Subject’, Studies in Higher Education, 1983, pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. Clarke: Education and Social Change, London, 1940; Freedom in the Educative Society, London, 1948;Google Scholar
  11. K. Mannheim: Man and Society, London, 1940; Diagnosis of Our Time, London, 1943; Freedom, Power and Democratic Planning, London, 1951.Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    As examples: D. J. O’Connor: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education, London, 1957, an early contribution to linguistic philosophy and education, Sociological Review Monographs 1–4 (Keele 1958–61). In philosophy, the writing of Peters and Hurst, professional philosophers who developed educational philosophy as their specialism, became very influential in the 1950s and 1960s.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© W. A. C. Stewart 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. A. C. Stewart
    • 1
  1. 1.University of KeeleUK

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