Control: Cultural and Biological Methods

  • G. R. Dixon
Part of the Science in Horticulture Series book series


The basic approach with cultural control is to invoke those aspects of husbandry that promote sound crop growth and inhibit or otherwise obstruct pathogenic growth. This should avoid, delay or lessen the impact of disease. Conversely those practices that operate in an opposite direction should be eliminated. More than any other form of control, cultural methods emphasise that the objective of horticulture is to produce fruitful, high-yielding crops rather than simply to control plant pathogens. These controls act largely in a preventive manner and are applied in advance of invasion. They do not lend themselves to control pathogens that occur in a sporadic manner. It should be firmly borne in mind that advocating adjustments to crop environment is a highly risky business where knowledge of the effects of environmental change on crop economics is imperfectly understood.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ANON (1968). Report of the first session of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) panel of experts on integrated pest control. Food and Agriculture Meeting Report, no. PL/1967/M/7, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  2. BAKER, K. F. and COOK, R. J. (1974). Biological Control of Plant Pathogens, Freeman, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  3. BENNETT, C. W. (1969). Seed transmission of plant viruses. Advances Virus Research, 14, 221–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. BERARD, D. F., KUĆ, J. and WILLIAMS, E. B. (1972). A cultivar-specific protection factor from incompatible interactions of green bean with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Physiological Plant Pathology, 2, 123–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. BERARD, D. F., KUĆ, J. and WILLIAMS, E. B. (1973). Relationship of genes for resistance to protection by diffusates from incompatible interactions of Phaseolus vulgarls with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Physiological Plant Pathology, 3, 51–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BLAKEMAN, J. P. (1981). The chemical environment of the leaf surface in relation to growth of pathogenic fungi. 255–68, in Ecology of Leaf Surface Micro-organisms (eds T. F. Preece and C. H. Dickinson), Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. BLOOM, J. R. and COUCH, H. B. (1958). Influence of pH, nutrition and soil moisture on the development of large brown patch. Phytopathology, 48, 260 (abstract)Google Scholar
  8. BOS, L. (1976). Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus. Commonwealth Mycological Institute/Association of Applied Biologists. Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 158. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, KewGoogle Scholar
  9. BRADLEY, R. H. E., WADE, C. V. and WOOD, F. A. (1962). Aphid transmission of potato virus Y inhibited by oils. Virology, 18, 327–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. BROADBENT, L. (1976). Epidemiology and control of tomato mosaic virus. Annual Review Phytopathology, 14, 75–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. BROADBENT, L., TINSLEY, T. W., BUDDIN, W. and ROBERTS, E. T. (1951). The spread of lettuce mosaic in the field. Annals Applied Biology, 38, 689–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. COLHOUN, J. (1953). Observations on the incidence of clubroot disease of Brassicae in limed soils in relation to temperature. Annals Applied Biology, 40, 639–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. COLHOUN, J. (1961). Spore load, light intensity and plant nutrition as factors influencing the incidence of clubroot of Brassicae. Transactions British Mycological Society, 44, 593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. COOPER, A. J. (1956). The influence of cultural conditions on the development of Alternaria leaf spot of cinerarias. Journal Horticultural Science, 31, 229–33Google Scholar
  15. CORKE, A. T. K. (1980). Biological control of plant pathogens. Report Long Ashton Research Station for 1978, 139–41Google Scholar
  16. COUCH, H. B. and BLOOM, J. R. (1960). Influence of environment on diseases of turf grasses. II. Effect of nutrition, pH and soil moisture on Sclerotinia dollar spot. Phytopathology, 50, 761–3Google Scholar
  17. CRUTE, I. R. and DIXON, G. R. (1981). Downy Mildew Diseases caused by the Genus Bremia Regel. 420–60, in The Downy Mildews (ed. D. M. Spencer), Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. DALY, J. M. (1949). The influence of nitrogen source on the development of stem rust of wheat. Phytopathology, 39, 386–94Google Scholar
  19. DAS, A. C. and WESTERN, J. H. (1959). The effect of inorganic manures, moisture and inoculum on the incidence of root disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn in cultivated soil. Annals Applied Biology, 47, 37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DEVERALL, B. J. (1977). Defence Mechanisms of Plants. Cambridge Monographs in Experimental Biology No. 19, Cambridge University Press, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DOHERTY, M. A. and PREECE, T. F. (1978). Bacillus cereus prevents germination of uredospores of Puccinia allii and the development of rust disease of leek, Allium porrum, in controlled environments. Physiological Plant Pathology, 12, 123–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DOLING, D. A. and WILLEY, L. A. (1969). Date of sowing and the yield of swedes. Experimental Husbandry, 18, 87–90Google Scholar
  23. DUFFUS, J. E. (1971). Role of weeds in the incidence of virus diseases. Annual Review Phytopathology, 9, 319–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. ENDO, R. M. (1966). Control of dollar spot of turf grass by nitrogen and its probable basis. Phytopathology, 56, 877 (abstract)Google Scholar
  25. GALLEGLY, M. E. and WALKER, J. C. (1949). Plant nutrition in relation to disease development. V. Bacterial wilt of tomato. American Journal Botany, 36, 613–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. GAUMANN, G. (1950). Principles of Plant Infection (translation of Pflanzliche Infektionslehre by W. B. Brierley), Crosby, Lockwood and Son, London, p. 259Google Scholar
  27. HAMMERSCHMIDT, R., ACRES, S. and KUĆ, J. (1976). Protection of cucumber against Colletotrichum lagenarium and Cladosporium cucumerinum. Phytopathology, 66, 790–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. HANKS, G. and PHILLIPS, S. (1982). Twin-scaling. Growers Bulletin No. 6, Glasshouse Crops Research Institute, LittlehamptonGoogle Scholar
  29. HEATHCOTE, G. D. (1974). The effect of plant spacing, nitrogen fertiliser and irrigation on the appearance of symptoms and spread of virus yellows in sugar beet crops. Journal Agricultural Science, Cambridge, 82, 53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. HOMMA, Y. and OHATA, K. (1977). Suppression of Fusarium wilt symptoms in tomato by prior inoculation of other formae of F. oxysporum and F. solani. Agricultural Experiment Station, Shikoku, Bulletin No. 30, 103–14Google Scholar
  31. HUBBELING, N. and BASU CHAUDHARY, K. C. (1969). Influence of pH and calcium nutrition on the resistance of tomato seedlings to Verticillium wilt. Mededelingen Rijksfakulteit Landbouwweetenschappen, Gent, 34, 937–43Google Scholar
  32. HUBER, D. and WATSON, R. D. (1974). Nitrogen form and plant disease. Annual Review Phytopathology, 12, 139–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. JOHNSON, C. G. (1969). Migration and Dispersal of Insects by Flight, Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. KASHYAP, V. and LEVKINA, I. (1977). Effect of micro-organisms isolated from tomato leaves on mycelial growth of some pathogenic fungi. Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta Biologiya, No. 1, 65–9Google Scholar
  35. KATAN, J. (1981). Solar heating (soiarization) of soil for control of soil borne pests. Annual Review Phytopathology, 19, 211–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. LAST, F. T. (1953). Some effects of temperature and nitrogen supply on wheat powdery mildew. Annals Applied Biology, 40, 312–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. LI, C. Y., LU, K. C., TRAPPE, J. M. and BOLLEN, W. B. (1967). Selective nitrogen assimilation by Poria weirii. Nature, London, 213, 814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. MANSFIELD, J. W. and DEVERALL, B. J. (1974a). The rates of fungal development and lesion formation in leaves of Vicia faba during infection by Botrytis cinerea and Botrytis fabae. Annals Applied Biology, 76, 77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. MANSFIELD, J. W. and DEVERALL, B. J. (1974b). Changes in wyerone acid concentrations in leaves of Vicia faba after infection by Botrytis cinerea or B. fabae. Annals Applied Biology, 77, 227–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. MANSFIELD, J. W. and WIDDOWSON, D. A. (1973). The metabolism of wyerone acid (a phytoalexin from Vicia faba L.) by Botrytis fabae and B. cinerea. Physiological Plant Pathology, 3, 393–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. MAUDE, R. B. (1970). The control of Septoria on celery seed. Annals Applied Biology, 65, 249–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. MAXON-SMITH, J. W. and PROCTOR, P. (1965). Use of disease resistant rootstocks for tomato crops. Experimental Horticulture, 12, 6–20Google Scholar
  43. MILBRAITH, D. G. (1948). Control of western celery mosaic. California Department Agriculture Bulletin, 37, 3–7Google Scholar
  44. MOORE, W. D. (1949). Flooding as a means of destroying sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Phytopathology, 39, 920–7Google Scholar
  45. MOORE, W. D., SMITH, F. F., JOHNSON, G. V. and WOLFENBARGER, D. O. (1965). Reduction of aphid populations and delayed incidence of virus infection on yellow straight neck squash by use of aluminium foil. Proceedings Florida State Horticultural Society. 78. 187–91Google Scholar
  46. MÜLLER, K. O. (1959). Hypersensitivity. 469–519, in Plant Pathology—An Advanced Treatise, Vol. I, The Diseased Plant (eds. J. G. Horsfall and A. E. Dimond), Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. MURANT, A. F. (1970). Tomato Black Ring Virus. Commonwealth Mycological Institute/Association of Applied Biologists. Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 38. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, KewGoogle Scholar
  48. MURANT, A. F. (1974). Parsnip Yellow Fleck Virus. Commonwealth Mycological Institute/Association of Applied Biologists. Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 129. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, KewGoogle Scholar
  49. NILSSON, G. I. and NELSON, P. V. (1964). Nitrogen nutrition and development of Phialophora cinerescens in carnation. Phytopathology, 54, 1172–3Google Scholar
  50. NITZANY, F. E., GEISENBERG, H. and KOCH, B. (1964). Tests for the protection of cucumbers from a white fly-borne virus. Phytopathology, 54, 1059–61Google Scholar
  51. ONUORAH, P. E. (1969). Effect of mineral nutrition on the Fusarium brown foot-rot of wheat. Plant Soil, 30, 99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. PELHAM, J. (1966). Resistance in tomato to tobacco mosaic virus. Euphytica, 15, 258–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. PURCIFULL, D. E. and ZITTER, T. A. (1971). Virus diseases affecting lettuce and endive in Florida. Proceedings Florida State Horticultural Society, 84, 165–8Google Scholar
  54. RAST, A. Th. B. (1972). M 11–16, an artificial symptomiess mutant of tobacco mosaic virus for seedling inoculation of tomato crops. Netherlands Journal Plant Pathology, 78, 110–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. RISBETH, J. (1963). Stump protection against Fomes annosus. III. Inoculation with Peniophora gigantea. Annals Applied Biology, 52, 63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. ROTEM, J. and COHEN, Y. (1966). The relationship between mode of irrigation and severity of tomato foliage diseases in Israel. Plant Disease Reporter, 50, 635–9Google Scholar
  57. ROUXEL, F., ALABOUVETTE, C. and LOUVET, J. (1977). Research on the resistance of soils to disease. II. Effect of heat treatment on the microbiological resistance of a soil to vascular Fusarium disease of melon. Annals Phytopathologie, 9, 183–92Google Scholar
  58. RUSSELL, G. E. (1965). The host range of some English isolates of beet yellowing viruses. Annals Applied Biology, 55, 245–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. RYDER, E. J. (1970). Inheritance of resistance to common lettuce mosaic. Journal American Society Horticultural Science, 95, 378–9 SEARLE, G. D. (1920). Some observations on Erysiphe polygoni DC. Transactions British Mycological Society, 6, 274–94Google Scholar
  60. SEWELL, G. W. F. (1981). Effects of Pythium species on the growth of apple and their possible causal role in apple replant disease. Annals Applied Biology, 97, 31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. SHARMA, S. L., CHOWFLA, S. C. and SOLI, H. S. (1977). Control of buckeye rot of tomato by cultural practices. Indian Journal Mycology Plant Pathology, 6, 51–4Google Scholar
  62. SHEPHARD, M. C. and WOOD, R. K. S. (1963). The effect of environment and nutrition of pathogen and host in the damping off of seedlings by Rhizoctonia solani. Annals Applied Biology, 51, 389–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. SHIPTON, P. J. (1977). Monoculture and soilborne plant pathogens. Annual Review Phytopathology, 15, 387–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. SMITH, F. F., WEBB, R. E. and DUDLEY, R. F. (1979). Greenhouse whitefly control by sticky yellow board traps. Abstract 654, 9th International Congress Plant Protection, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  65. SMITH, K. M. (1972). A Textbook of Plant Virus Diseases, Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. SOL, H. H. (1967). The influence of different nitrogen sources on (1) the sugars and amino acids leached from leaves and (2) the susceptibility of Vicia faba to attack by Botrytis cinerea. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Opzoekingsstations, Gent, 32, 768–75Google Scholar
  67. STEVENS, N. E. and NIENOW, I. (1947). Plant disease control by unusual methods. Botanical Review, 13, 116–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. STONE, O. M., BRUNT, A. A. and HOLLINGS, M. (1978). Methods, logistics and problems in the production, distribution and use of virus-free clones of Narcissus tazetta cv. Grand Soleil d’Or. Report Glasshouse Crops Research Institute for 1977, 149–67Google Scholar
  69. STRIJBOSCH, Th. (1976). Relationship between the occurrence of condensation and botrytis. Annual Report Glasshouse Crops Research and Experiment Station Naaldwijk, 1973 and 1974, 79–80Google Scholar
  70. THAYER, P. L and WILLIAMS, L. E. (1960). Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations on the development of Gibberella stalk and root-rot of corn. Phytopathology, 50, 212–14Google Scholar
  71. VAN DER VEKEN, J. J. (1977). Oils and other inhibitors of non-persistent virus transmission. 435–54, in Aphids as Virus Vectors (eds K. F. Harris and K. Maramorosch), Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  72. VANTERPOOL, T. C. (1962). Pythium root rot of wheat in Saskatchewan. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 42, 214–15Google Scholar
  73. WALKER, J. C. (1946). Soil management and plant nutrition in relation to disease development. Soil Science, 61, 47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. WALKER, J. C. and FOSTER, R. E. (1946). Plant nutrition in relation to disease development. III. Fusarium wilt of tomato. American Journal Botany, 33, 259–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. WALKER, J. C. and WELLMAN, F. L. (1926). Relation of temperature to spore germination and growth of Urocystis cepulae. Journal Agricultural Research, 32, 133–46Google Scholar
  76. WALKER, J. C., GALLEGLY, M. E., BLOOM, J. R. and SHEPHERD, R. D. (1954). Relation of plant nutrition to disease development. VIII. Verticillium wilt of tomato. American Journal Botany, 41, 760–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. WEINHOLD, A. R., DODMAN, R. L. and BOWMAN, T. (1972). Influence of exogenous nutrition on virulence of Rhizoctonia solani. Phytopathology, 62, 278–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. ZINK, F. W., GROGAN, R. G. and WELCH, J. E. (1956). The effect of the percentage of seed transmission upon subsequent spread of lettuce mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 46, 662–4Google Scholar
  79. ZITTER, T. A. (1977). Epidemiology of aphid borne viruses. 385–412, in Aphids As Virus Vectors (eds K. F. Harris and K. Maramorosch), Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  80. ZITTER, T. A. and OZAKI, H. Y. (1978). Aphid-borne vegetable viruses controlled with oil sprays. Proceedings Florida State Horticultural Society, 91, 287–9Google Scholar

Further Reading

  1. BAILEY, J. A. and MANSFIELD, J. W. (1982). Phytoalexins, Blackie, GlasgowGoogle Scholar
  2. COLHOUN, J. (1973). Effects of environmental factors on plant disease. Annual Review Phytopathology, 11, 343–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. COSTA, A. S. (1976). Whitefly-transmitted plant diseases. Annual Review Phytopathology, 14, 429–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. HARDISON, J. R. (1976). Fire and flame for plant disease control. Annual Review Phytopathology, 14, 355–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. PALTI, J. (1981). Cultural Practices and Infectious Crop Diseases, Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. PALTI, J. and ROTEM, J. (1981). Control of Downy Mildews by Cultural Practices. 289–304, in The Downy Mildews (ed. D. M. Spencer), Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. STEVENS, R. B. (1960). Cultural practices in disease control. 357–429, in Plant Pathology—An Advanced Treatise. Vol. III. The Diseased Population, Epidemics and Control (eds J. G. Horsfall and A. E. Dimond), Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. SUMNER, D. R., DOUPNIK, B. and BOOSALIS, M. G. (1981). Effects of reduced tillage and multiple cropping on plant diseases. Annual Review Phytopathology, 19, 167–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ZENTMYER, G. A. and BALD, J. G. (1977). Management of the environment. 121–44, in Plant Disease—An Advanced Treatise, Vol. I. How Disease is Managed (eds J. G. Horsfall and E. B. Cowling), Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. ZITTER, T. A. and SIMONS, J. N. (1980). Management of viruses by alteration of vector efficiency and by cultural practices. Annual Review Phytopathology, 18, 289–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© G. R. Dixon 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. R. Dixon
    • 1
  1. 1.School of AgricultureAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations