Metal Household Utensils and Basic Needs in India

  • T. S. Papola
  • R. C. Sinha
Part of the ILO Studies book series


This study attempts to examine the interrelationships between the pattern of income distribution, consumption, production technology and employment, in the case of an individual commodity group, namely metal utensils. Metal utensils do not seem to have attracted as much attention as an item of basic needs as food, clothing and shelter. No doubt metal utensils form a small item in terms of total household consumption expenditure; and in certain regions and low levels of incomes, lower-order products such as utensils made of earthen clay are also used to serve the needs of the household. But even in these situations certain functions require the use of metal utensils and earthen ones fail to fulfil certain minimum requirements of durability, ease of handling and cleanliness. Therefore, metal utensils essentially belong to the category of goods that not only serve certain basic needs of a household, but also have the characteristics of minimum essential items of household consumption.


Capita Expenditure Rural Household Urban Household Total Household Expenditure Expenditure Elasticity 
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  1. 2.
    An explanation of the model can be found in T. S. Papola and R. C. Sinha, The Consumption Behaviour and Supply Conditions of Metal Utensils in India: A Study in the Basic Needs Framework (Geneva: ILO, 1982; mimeographed World Employment Programme research working paper; restricted).Google Scholar

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© International Labour Organisation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. S. Papola
  • R. C. Sinha

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