Foreign Policy Differences in Selected Latin American Countries
The Latin American and Caribbean countries were in the forefront of the bargaining over the New International Economic Order from 1974 to 1977. Some countries were more active than others. notably Jamaica, Mexico, and Venezuela, but many of the programmes proposed as part of the NIEO package had their origins in Latin America, especially in Latin American multilateral institutions like ECLA, and there was generally a high interest in the NIEO negotiations throughout the region. The Latin American countries had more at stake in the NIEO negotiations than other developing regions because of their middle-income status among the world’s economies. No Latin American country, with the exception of Haiti, is on the World Bank’s list for 1977 of low-income countries.1 This, along with the general variety of the countries in the region, makes the region a good choice for testing propositions about what explains differences in NIEO policies among developing countries.
KeywordsSugar Europe Petroleum Manganese Income
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Notes and References
- 5.William R. Cline, ‘Brazil’s Emerging International Economic Role’, in Riordan Roett (ed.), Brazil in the Seventies (Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1976) pp. 71 and 85. Brazil has reduced its dependence on coffee as a primary export commodity. The percentages of total export revenues accounted for by coffee dropped from 42 per cent in the 1965–9 period to 12.6 per cent in 1974. This trend is not likely to be reversed, even as the coffee planters recover from the frost which killed many trees in 1975. The drop in dependence on coffee exports is only partly attributable to the increase in exports of manufactured goods. Brazil’s agricultural exports have become more diversified; but not less important, exports of soybeans and sugar accounted for 23.2 per cent of Brazil’s export revenues in 1974. Therefore, Brazil continues to have a stake in maintaining the purchasing power of commodity exports at the same time as it has increasing interest in gaining access to the markets of developed countries. See Werner Baer, ‘The Brazilian Growth and Development Experience: 1964–1975’, in Roett (ed.), Brazil in the Seventies, pp. 47–50. Further information on Brazil was obtained in an interview with the Brazilian Ambassador to the United States, João Baptista Pinheiro, and documents supplied by the Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations.Google Scholar
- 7.Interview materials; David Bushnell, ‘Colombia’, in Harold E. Davis and Larman C. Wilson (eds). Latin American Foreign Policies (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975); Departamento Nacional de Planeación, Para Cerrar la Brecha (Bogotá: Ediciones del Banco de la República, 1975) chs 1–6.Google Scholar
- 12.Luis Echeverría Sexto Informe Presidencial: 1970–1976 (Mexico: Instituto de Comercio Exterior, 1976) no page numbers.Google Scholar
- 13.Ibid.; El Plan Básico de Gobierno 1976–1982 (Mexico: no date) p. 19;Google Scholar
- José López Portillo. Memorias de Campaña (Mexico: publisher unknown, 1976) pp. 121–2.Google Scholar
- 17.Interview materials; Manuel Pérez Guerrero, ‘Global Problems and the Interdependency of Nations’, Documentacion Venezuela Now, 1 (30 May 1976) p. 93.Google Scholar